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      Aptamer-Antibody Complementation On Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Gold Transduced Dielectrode Surfaces To Detect Pandemic Swine Influenza Virus

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          Abstract

          Background

          A pandemic influenza viral strain, influenza A/California/07/2009 (pdmH1N1), has been considered to be a potential issue that needs to be controlled to avoid the seasonal emergence of mutated strains.

          Materials and methods

          In this study, aptamer-antibody complementation was implemented on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-gold conjugated sensing surface with a dielectrode to detect pandemic pdmH1N1. Preliminary biomolecular and dielectrode surface analyses were performed by molecular and microscopic methods. A stable anti-pdmH1N1 aptamer sequence interacted with hemagglutinin (HA) and was compared with the antibody interaction. Both aptamer and antibody attachments on the surface as the basic molecule attained the saturation at nanomolar levels.

          Results

          Aptamers were found to have higher affinity and electric response than antibodies against HA of pdmH1N1. Linear regression with aptamer-HA interaction displays sensitivity in the range of 10 fM, whereas antibody-HA interaction shows a 100-fold lower level (1 pM). When sandwich-based detection of aptamer-HA-antibody and antibody-HA-aptamer was performed, a higher response of current was observed in both cases. Moreover, the detection strategy with aptamer clearly discriminated the closely related HA of influenza B/Tokyo/53/99 and influenza A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2).

          Conclusion

          The high performance of the abovementioned detection methods was supported by the apparent specificity and reproducibility by the demonstrated sensing system.

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          Most cited references 33

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          H9N2 influenza A viruses from poultry in Asia have human virus-like receptor specificity.

          H9N2 influenza A viruses are currently widespread in chickens, quail, and other poultry in Asia and have caused a few cases of influenza in humans. In this study, we found that H9N2 viruses from Hong Kong live bird markets have receptor specificity similar to that of human H3N2 viruses. In addition, the neuraminidase of poultry H9N2 viruses has mutations in its hemadsorbing site, a characteristic resembling that of human H2N2 and H3N2 viruses but differing from that of other avian viruses. Peculiar features of surface glycoproteins of H9N2 viruses from Hong Kong suggest an enhanced propensity for introduction into humans and emphasize the importance of poultry in the zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Advances in carbon nanotube based electrochemical sensors for bioanalytical applications.

            Electrochemical (EC) sensing approaches have exploited the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode materials owing to their unique structures and properties to provide strong electrocatalytic activity with minimal surface fouling. Nanofabrication and device integration technologies have emerged along with significant advances in the synthesis, purification, conjugation and biofunctionalization of CNTs. Such combined efforts have contributed towards the rapid development of CNT-based sensors for a plethora of important analytes with improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. The use of CNTs opens an opportunity for the direct electron transfer between the enzyme and the active electrode area. Of particular interest are also excellent electrocatalytic activities of CNTs on the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, two major by-products of enzymatic reactions. This excellent electrocatalysis holds a promising future for the simple design and implementation of on-site biosensors for oxidases and dehydrogenases with enhanced selectivity. To date, the use of an anti-interference layer or an artificial electron mediator is critically needed to circumvent unwanted endogenous electroactive species. Such interfering species are effectively suppressed by using CNT based electrodes since the oxidation of NADH, thiols, hydrogen peroxide, etc. by CNTs can be performed at low potentials. Nevertheless, the major future challenges for the development of CNT-EC sensors include miniaturization, optimization and simplification of the procedure for fabricating CNT based electrodes with minimal non-specific binding, high sensitivity and rapid response followed by their extensive validation using "real world" samples. A high resistance to electrode fouling and selectivity are the two key pending issues for the application of CNT-based biosensors in clinical chemistry, food quality and control, waste water treatment and bioprocessing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

              Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX) to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                IJN
                intjnano
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                25 October 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 8469-8481
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Infectious Diseases,Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University, Henan Children’s Hospital, Zhengzhou Children’s Hospitality, Zhengzhou 450053, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis , Arau, Perlis 02600, Malaysia
                [3 ]Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis , Kangar, Perlis 01000, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Subash CB Gopinath School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis , Arau, Perlis02600, MalaysiaTel +601110472006 Email subash@unimap.edu.my
                Article
                219976
                10.2147/IJN.S219976
                6821056
                © 2019 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 36, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Research

                Molecular medicine

                influenza pandemic, membrane protein, aptasensor, immunosensor, dielectrode sensor

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