195
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Pharmacology of ginsenosides: a literature review

      , 1 , 2

      Chinese Medicine

      BioMed Central

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The therapeutic potential of ginseng has been studied extensively, and ginsenosides, the active components of ginseng, are shown to be involved in modulating multiple physiological activities. This article will review the structure, systemic transformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides before illustration on how these molecules exert their functions via interactions with steroidal receptors. The multiple biological actions make ginsenosides as important resources for developing new modalities. Yet, low bioavailability of ginsenoside is one of the major hurdles needs to be overcome to advance its use in clinical settings.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 92

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions.

          Ginseng is a highly valued herb in the Far East and has gained popularity in the West during the last decade. There is extensive literature on the beneficial effects of ginseng and its constituents. The major active components of ginseng are ginsenosides, a diverse group of steroidal saponins, which demonstrate the ability to target a myriad of tissues, producing an array of pharmacological responses. However, many mechanisms of ginsenoside activity still remain unknown. Since ginsenosides and other constituents of ginseng produce effects that are different from one another, and a single ginsenoside initiates multiple actions in the same tissue, the overall pharmacology of ginseng is complex. The ability of ginsenosides to independently target multireceptor systems at the plasma membrane, as well as to activate intracellular steroid receptors, may explain some pharmacological effects. This commentary aims to review selected effects of ginseng and ginsenosides and describe their possible modes of action. Structural variability of ginsenosides, structural and functional relationship to steroids, and potential targets of action are discussed.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            BIOSYNTHESIS AND ACTION OF JASMONATES IN PLANTS.

            Jasmonic acid and its derivatives can modulate aspects of fruit ripening, production of viable pollen, root growth, tendril coiling, and plant resistance to insects and pathogens. Jasmonate activates genes involved in pathogen and insect resistance, and genes encoding vegetative storage proteins, but represses genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis. Jasmonic acid is derived from linolenic acid, and most of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway have been extensively characterized. Modulation of lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase gene expression in transgenic plants raises new questions about the compartmentation of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The activation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by cell wall elicitors, the peptide systemin, and other compounds will be related to the function of jasmonates in plants. Jasmonate modulates gene expression at the level of translation, RNA processing, and transcription. Promoter elements that mediate responses to jasmonate have been isolated. This review covers recent advances in our understanding of how jasmonate biosynthesis is regulated and relates this information to knowledge of jasmonate modulated gene expression.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Steaming of ginseng at high temperature enhances biological activity.

              The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of steaming ginseng at a temperature over 100 degrees C on its chemical constituents and biological activities. Raw ginseng was steamed at 100, 110, and 120 degrees C for 2 h using an autoclave. The ginseng steamed at 120 degrees C was more potent in its ability to induce endothelium-dependent relaxation. Steaming the raw ginseng at 120 degrees C also remarkably increased the radical-scavenging activity. Ginsenosides F(4), Rg(3), and Rg(5), which were not present in raw ginseng, were produced after steaming. Ginsenosides Rg(3) and Rg(5) were the most abundant ginsenosides in the ginseng steamed at 120 degrees C, accounting for 39% and 19% of all ginsenosides, respectively.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chin Med
                Chinese Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1749-8546
                2010
                11 June 2010
                : 5
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
                [2 ]School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
                Article
                1749-8546-5-20
                10.1186/1749-8546-5-20
                2893180
                20537195
                Copyright ©2010 Leung and Wong; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article