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      Comparisons and correlations of pain intensity and respiratory and peripheral muscle strength in the pre- and postoperative periods of cardiac surgery

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To evaluate respiratory and peripheral muscle strength after cardiac surgery. Additionally, we compared the changes in these variables on the third and sixth postoperative days.

          Methods

          Forty-six patients were recruited, including 17 women and 29 men, with a mean age of 60.50 years (SD = 9.20). Myocardial revascularization surgery was performed in 36 patients, replacement of the aortic valve in 5 patients, and replacement of the mitral valve in 5 patients.

          Results

          A significant reduction in respiratory and peripheral muscle strength and a significant increase in pain intensity were observed on the third and sixth postoperative days (p < 0.05), except for the variable maximal inspiratory pressure; on the sixth postoperative day, maximal inspiratory pressure values were already similar to the preoperative and predicted values (p > 0.05). There was an association between peripheral muscle strength, specifically between maximal expiratory pressure preoperatively (rs = 0.383; p = 0.009), on the third postoperative day (rs = 0.468; p = 0.001) and on the sixth postoperative day (rs = 0.311; p = 0.037). The effect sizes were consistently moderate-to-large for respiratory muscle strength, the Medical Research Council scale and the visual analog scale, in particular between preoperative assessment and the sixth postoperative day.

          Conclusion

          There is a decrease in respiratory and peripheral muscle strength after cardiac surgery. In addition, maximal expiratory pressure is the variable that is most associated with peripheral muscle strength. These variables, especially respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, should be considered by professionals working in the intensive care setting.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Hand grip strength: outcome predictor and marker of nutritional status.

          Among all muscle function tests, measurement of hand grip strength has gained attention as a simple, non-invasive marker of muscle strength of upper extremities, well suitable for clinical use. This review outlines the prognostic relevance of grip strength in various clinical and epidemiologic settings and investigates its suitability as marker of nutritional status in cross-sectional as well as intervention studies. Studies investigating grip strength as prognostic marker or nutritional parameter in cross-sectional or intervention studies were summarized. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have shown the predictive potential of hand grip strength regarding short and long-term mortality and morbidity. In patients, impaired grip strength is an indicator of increased postoperative complications, increased length of hospitalization, higher rehospitalisation rate and decreased physical status. In elderly in particular, loss of grip strength implies loss of independence. Epidemiological studies have moreover demonstrated that low grip strength in healthy adults predicts increased risk of functional limitations and disability in higher age as well as all-cause mortality. As muscle function reacts early to nutritional deprivation, hand grip strength has also become a popular marker of nutritional status and is increasingly being employed as outcome variable in nutritional intervention studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
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            Reference values for lung function tests. II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation.

            The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque) (P < 0.01). Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.
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              • Article: found

              Reference values for lung function tests: II. Maximal respiratory pressures and voluntary ventilation

              The strength of the respiratory muscles can be evaluated from static measurements (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, MIP and MEP) or inferred from dynamic maneuvers (maximal voluntary ventilation, MVV). Although these data could be suitable for a number of clinical and research applications, no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy, randomly selected sample of the adult Brazilian population. With this main purpose, we prospectively evaluated 100 non-smoking subjects (50 males and 50 females), 20 to 80 years old, selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations for MIP, MEP and MVV were developed by multiple regression analysis: age and, secondarily, anthropometric measurements explained up to 56% of the variability of the dependent variables. The most cited previous studies using either Caucasian or non-Caucasian samples systematically underestimated the observed values of MIP (P<0.05). Interestingly, the self-reported level of regular physical activity and maximum aerobic power correlates strongly with both respiratory and peripheral muscular strength (knee extensor peak torque) (P<0.01). Our results, therefore, provide a new frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of some useful indexes of respiratory muscle strength in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
                Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
                rbti
                Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
                Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB
                0103-507X
                1982-4335
                Oct-Dec 2018
                Oct-Dec 2018
                : 30
                : 4
                : 479-486
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro Universitário Tiradentes - Maceió (AL), Brasil.
                [2 ] Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Ceuma - São Luís (MA), Brasil.
                [3 ] Centro de Pesquisa Clínica em Cardiologia, Hospital do Coração - Maceió (AL), Brasil.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Daniela Bassi. Departamento de Fisioterapia Centro de Ciências da Saúde Universidade Ceuma Rua Josué Montello, 1 - Jardim Renascença Zip code: 65075-120 - São Luís (MA), Brazil E-mail: danielabassifisio@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.5935/0103-507X.20180069
                6334478

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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