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      Toward Drowsiness Detection Using Non-hair-Bearing EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces

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          A review of classification algorithms for EEG-based brain–computer interfaces

          In this paper we review classification algorithms used to design brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on electroencephalography (EEG). We briefly present the commonly employed algorithms and describe their critical properties. Based on the literature, we compare them in terms of performance and provide guidelines to choose the suitable classification algorithm(s) for a specific BCI.
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            Imaging human EEG dynamics using independent component analysis.

            This review discusses the theory and practical application of independent component analysis (ICA) to multi-channel EEG data. We use examples from an audiovisual attention-shifting task performed by young and old subjects to illustrate the power of ICA to resolve subtle differences between evoked responses in the two age groups. Preliminary analysis of these data using ICA suggests a loss of task specificity in independent component (IC) processes in frontal and somatomotor cortex during post-response periods in older as compared to younger subjects, trends not detected during examination of scalp-channel event-related potential (ERP) averages. We discuss possible approaches to component clustering across subjects and new ways to visualize mean and trial-by-trial variations in the data, including ERP-image plots of dynamics within and across trials as well as plots of event-related spectral perturbations in component power, phase locking, and coherence. We believe that widespread application of these and related analysis methods should bring EEG once again to the forefront of brain imaging, merging its high time and frequency resolution with enhanced cm-scale spatial resolution of its cortical sources.
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              Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface.

              Recent advances in electrodes for noninvasive recording of electroencephalograms expand opportunities collecting such data for diagnosis of neurological disorders and brain-computer interfaces. Existing technologies, however, cannot be used effectively in continuous, uninterrupted modes for more than a few days due to irritation and irreversible degradation in the electrical and mechanical properties of the skin interface. Here we introduce a soft, foldable collection of electrodes in open, fractal mesh geometries that can mount directly and chronically on the complex surface topology of the auricle and the mastoid, to provide high-fidelity and long-term capture of electroencephalograms in ways that avoid any significant thermal, electrical, or mechanical loading of the skin. Experimental and computational studies establish the fundamental aspects of the bending and stretching mechanics that enable this type of intimate integration on the highly irregular and textured surfaces of the auricle. Cell level tests and thermal imaging studies establish the biocompatibility and wearability of such systems, with examples of high-quality measurements over periods of 2 wk with devices that remain mounted throughout daily activities including vigorous exercise, swimming, sleeping, and bathing. Demonstrations include a text speller with a steady-state visually evoked potential-based brain-computer interface and elicitation of an event-related potential (P300 wave).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
                IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                1534-4320
                1558-0210
                February 2018
                February 2018
                : 26
                : 2
                : 400-406
                Article
                10.1109/TNSRE.2018.2790359
                29432111
                bb954d5e-842f-4efa-ac7e-5a28b5776656
                © 2018
                History

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