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Protection of SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells from Glutamate-Induced Apoptosis by 3,6′-Disinapoyl Sucrose, a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Radix Polygala

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      The neuroprotective effects of 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) from Radix Polygala against glutamate-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cells injury were evaluated in the present study. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were pretreated with glutamate (8 mM) for 30 min followed by cotreatment with DISS for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by (3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and apoptosis was confirmed by cell morphology and flow cytometry assay, evaluated with propidium iodide dye. Treatment with DISS (0.6, 6, and 60  μmol/L) increased cell viability dose dependently, inhibited LDH release, and attenuated apoptosis. The mechanisms by which DISS protected neuron cells from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity included the downregulation of proapoptotic gene Bax and the upregulation of antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. The present findings indicated that DISS exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate toxicity, which might be of importance and contribute to its clinical efficacy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

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      Most cited references 17

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      Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

      A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.
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        Excitotoxic cell death.

         In Choi (1992)
        Excitotoxicity refers to the ability of glutamate or related excitatory amino acids to mediate the death of central neurons under certain conditions, for example, after intense exposure. Such excitotoxic neuronal death may contribute to the pathogenesis of brain or spinal cord injury associated with several human disease states. Excitotoxicity has substantial cellular specificity and, in most cases, is mediated by glutamate receptors. On average, NMDA receptors activation may be able to trigger lethal injury more rapidly than AMPA or kainate receptor activation, perhaps reflecting a greater ability to induce calcium influx and subsequent cellular calcium overload. It is possible that excitotoxic death may share some mechanisms with other forms of neuronal death.
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          Chronic antidepressants reduce depolarization-evoked glutamate release and protein interactions favoring formation of SNARE complex in hippocampus.

          Glutamate neurotransmission was recently implicated in the action of stress and in antidepressant mechanisms. We report that chronic (not acute) treatment with three antidepressants with different primary mechanisms (fluoxetine, reboxetine, and desipramine) markedly reduced depolarization-evoked release of glutamate, stimulated by 15 or 25 mm KCl, but not release of GABA. Endogenous glutamate and GABA release was measured in superfused synaptosomes, freshly prepared from hippocampus of drug-treated rats. Interestingly, treatment with the three drugs only barely changed the release of glutamate (and of GABA) induced by ionomycin. In synaptic membranes of chronically treated rats we found a marked reduction in the protein-protein interaction between syntaxin 1 and Thr286-phosphorylated alphaCaM kinase II (alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) (an interaction previously proposed to promote neurotransmitter release) and a marked increase in the interaction between syntaxin 1 and Munc-18 (an interaction proposed to reduce neurotransmitter release). Furthermore, we found a selective reduction in the expression level of the three proteins forming the core SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex. These findings suggest that antidepressants work by stabilizing glutamate neurotransmission in the hippocampus and that they may represent a useful tool for the study of relationship between functional and molecular processes in nerve terminals.

            Author and article information

            1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Center of Pharmacy, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
            2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
            3School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China
            4Faculty of Science, School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Masa-Aki Shibata

            J Biomed Biotechnol
            J. Biomed. Biotechnol
            Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            30 June 2011
            : 2012
            Copyright © 2012 Yuan Hu et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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