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      Study of Drug Target Identification and Associated Molecular Mechanisms for the Therapeutic Activity and Hair Follicle Induction of Two Ashwagandha Extracts Having Differential Withanolide Constitutions


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          Ashwagandha extracts play a significant role in traditional Indian medicine to help treat a wide range of disorders from amnesia, erectile dysfunction, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, stress, anxiety, and many more. Ashwagandha root is enriched with bioactive plant metabolites of which withanolides are the most important ones. The concentration and constitution of withanolides primarily determine ashwagandha's potency and pharmacology. Various factors modulate the withanolide constitution in the plant-derived extracts, rendering inconsistent therapeutic efficacy. Standardisation of the extraction protocol and a better understanding of the pharmacology mechanism of different extracts with varied withanolide constitutions is therefore critical for developing reliable, repeatable, and effective ashwagandha-based treatment.


          Here, we work toward defining indication mechanisms for two varieties of ashwagandha extract—ASHWITH (ASH-Ext1) and Regenolide (ASH-Ext2)—with different proprietary withanolide proportions.


          ASH-Ext1 was studied for antioxidant signaling modulation using HEK293, HeLa, and A549 cells, and ASH-Ext2 was studied for subcellular drug targets associated with the reactivation and longevity of human hair follicles, using primary human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs).


          Study findings support the antioxidant activity and Nrf2 signaling modulation by ASH-Ext1 in various cell models. Of note, ASH-Ext2 was found to increase β-catenin and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein expression levels in HFDPCs.


          The results of drug target modulation show us that the withanolide constitution associated with different extraction protocols influences the pharmacological potential of the extract significantly and points to the value of standardisation not only of total withanolide content but also of internal withanolide proportions.

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          Nrf2 signaling pathway: Pivotal roles in inflammation.

          Inflammation is the most common feature of many chronic diseases and complications, while playing critical roles in carcinogenesis. Several studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory process by orchestrating the recruitment of inflammatory cells and regulating gene expression through the antioxidant response element (ARE). The Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein)/Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2)/ARE signaling pathway mainly regulates anti-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits the progression of inflammation. Therefore, the identification of new Nrf2-dependent anti-inflammatory phytochemicals has become a key point in drug discovery. In this review, we discuss the members of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signal pathway and its downstream genes, the effects of this pathway on animal models of inflammatory diseases, and crosstalk with the NF-κB pathway. In addition we also discuss about the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by Nrf2. Besides this, we summarize the current scenario of the development of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and others that mediate the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.
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            Anchorage-independent growth is the ability of transformed cells to grow independently of a solid surface, and is a hallmark of carcinogenesis. The soft agar colony formation assay is a well-established method for characterizing this capability in vitro and is considered to be one of the most stringent tests for malignant transformation in cells. This assay also allows for semi-quantitative evaluation of this capability in response to various treatment conditions. Here, we will demonstrate the soft agar colony formation assay using a murine lung carcinoma cell line, CMT167, to demonstrate the tumor suppressive effects of two members of the Wnt signaling pathway, Wnt7A and Frizzled-9 (Fzd-9). Concurrent overexpression of Wnt7a and Fzd-9 caused an inhibition of colony formation in CMT167 cells. This shows that expression of Wnt7a ligand and its Frizzled-9 receptor is sufficient to suppress tumor growth in a murine lung carcinoma model.
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              Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

              Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.

                Author and article information

                J Nutr Metab
                J Nutr Metab
                Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
                30 September 2023
                : 2023
                : 9599744
                1Biologic Pharmamedical Research, 688-2397 King George Blvd, White Rock V4A 7E9, BC, Canada
                2Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University, Panchanan Nagar, Vivekananda Street, Cooch Behar 736101, West Bengal, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Eric Gumpricht

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Franco Cavaleri et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 22 March 2023
                : 18 August 2023
                : 19 August 2023
                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Nutrition & Dietetics


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