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      Immunohistochemical localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide on rat endocrine pancreas: coexistence in rat islet cells

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          Abstract

          We used immunofluorescence double staining method to investigate the cellular localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in rat pancreatic islets. The results showed that both A-cells (glucagon-secreting cells) and PP-cells (PP-secreting cells) were located in the periphery of the islets. However, A-cells and PP-cells had a different regional distribution. Most of A-cells were located in the splenic lobe but a few of them were in the duodenal lobe of the pancreas. In contrast, the majority of PP-cells were found in the duodenal lobe and a few of them were in the splenic lobe of the pancreas. Furthermore, we found that 67.74% A-cells had PP immunoreactivity, 70.92% PP-cells contained glucagon immunoreactivity with immunofluorescence double staining. Our data support the concept of a common precursor stem cell for pancreatic hormone-producing cells.

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          Most cited references 24

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          In vitro trans-differentiation of adult hepatic stem cells into pancreatic endocrine hormone-producing cells.

          Although organ-specific stem cells possess plasticity that permit differentiation along new lineages, production of endocrine pancreas and insulin-secreting beta cells from adult nonpancreatic stem cells has not been demonstrated. We present evidence that highly purified adult rat hepatic oval "stem" cells, which are capable of differentiation to hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium, can trans-differentiate into pancreatic endocrine hormone-producing cells when cultured in a high-glucose environment. These differentiated cells can self-assemble to form three-dimensional islet cell-like clusters that express pancreatic islet cell differentiation-related transcripts detectable by reverse transcription-PCR/nested PCR (e.g., PDX-1, PAX-4, PAX-6, Nkx2.2 and Nkx6.1, insulin I, insulin II, glucose transporter 2, and glucagon) and islet-specific hormones detectable by immunocytochemistry (e.g., insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide). In addition, these cells concomitantly lose expression of the hepatocyte protein Hep-par. When stimulated with glucose, these cells synthesize and secrete insulin, a response enhanced by nicotinamide. In a pilot study, the oval cell-derived islet cell-like clusters displayed the ability to reverse hyperglycemia in a diabetic NOD-scid mouse. These results indicate that primary adult liver stem cells can differentiate in a nonlineage-restricted manner. Trans-differentiation into endocrine pancreas could have significant implications for future therapies of diabetes.
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            An immunocytochemical and morphometric study of the rat pancreatic islets.

            The rat pancreas has frequently been used as an animal model to study changes in islet cells in pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and islet cell tumours, but detailed quantitative data on the islets are not available. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate (1) the volume density of pancreatic islets, (2) islet diameter, islet volume and islet cell number and (3) islet cell pattern, i.e. the distribution, volume and number of each cell type per islet. The study also investigated the possibility of differences in various pancreatic regions derived from the dorsal primordium. The rat pancreas was divided into 4 regions: lower duodenal (derived from the ventral primordium) and upper duodenal, gastric and splenic regions (derived from the dorsal primordium). Sections were stained immunocytochemically with anti-insulin (B cells), antiglucagon (A cells), antisomatostatin (D cells) and antipancreatic polypeptide (PP cells) antibodies, and were used for morphometric analysis. A total of 1292 islets was examined, 328 from the lower duodenal, 245 from the upper duodenal, 314 from the gastric and 405 from the splenic regions. The mean volume density of the islets per pancreatic tissue was found to be 2.6 +/- 0.1%, 2.3 +/- 0.1%, 2.9 +/- 0.2% and 3.3 +/- 0.2%, in the lower duodenal, upper duodenal, gastric and splenic regions, respectively. The size-frequency distribution of the profile diameters of the islets showed an overall shift of all the size classes towards smaller sizes in the upper duodenal region, and towards larger sizes in the splenic region, as compared with the corresponding classes of the other regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              Voltage-gated and resting membrane currents recorded from B-cells in intact mouse pancreatic islets.

              1. The perforated patch whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied to superficial cells in intact pancreatic islets. Immunostaining in combination with confocal microscopy revealed that the superficial cells consisted of 35 % insulin-secreting B-cells and 65 % non-B-cells (A- and D-cells). 2. Two types of cell, with distinct electrophysiological properties, could be functionally identified. One of these generated oscillatory electrical activity when the islet was exposed to 10 mM glucose and had the electrophysiological characteristics of isolated B-cells maintained in tissue culture. 3. The Ca2+ current recorded from B-cells in situ was 80 % larger than that of isolated B-cells. It exhibited significant (70 %) inactivation during 100 ms depolarisations. The inactivation was voltage dependent and particularly prominent during depolarisations evoking the largest Ca2+ currents. 4. Voltage-dependent K+ currents were observed during depolarisations to membrane potentials above -20 mV. These currents inactivated little during a 200 ms depolarisation and were unaffected by varying the holding potential between -90 and -30 mV. 5. The maximum resting conductance in the absence of glucose, which reflects the conductance of ATP-regulated K+ (KATP) channels, amounted to approximately 4 nS. Glucose produced a concentration-dependent reduction of KATP channel conductance with half-maximal inhibition observed with 5 mM glucose. 6. Combining voltage- and current-clamp recording allowed the estimation of the gap junction conductance between different B-cells. These experiments indicated that the input conductance of the B-cell at stimulatory glucose concentrations ( approximately 1 nS) is almost entirely accounted for by coupling to neighbouring B-cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Histochem
                EJH
                EJH
                European Journal of Histochemistry : EJH
                PAGEPress Publications (Pavia, Italy )
                1121-760X
                2038-8306
                29 June 2009
                29 June 2009
                : 53
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jiang Min, Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China Tel.: +86.24.8328.2554., Fax: +86.24.2326.7030. E- mail: jiangminhyh@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                ejh.2009.e10
                10.4081/ejh.2009.e10
                3167281
                ©2009 European Journal of Histochemistry
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