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      Meta-worry, anxiety, and depression in the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: Brazil, June 2020 Translated title: Metapreocupación, ansiedad y depresión en la pandemia de coronavirus (COVID-19): Brasil, junio de 2020


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          Abstract Introduction Threats to mental health and psychological well-being have been considered among the most challenging dimensions to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective To track the occurrence of significant anxiety and depression symptoms and the level of worry among residents in Brazil in June 2020. Method The final sample totaled 4,805 participants from all Brazilian states. A sociodemographic and health questionnaire (with questions related to COVID-19), the translated versions of the Meta-Worry Questionnaire, and the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) were used. Inferential analyses were computed using the Multinomial Logistic Regression (backward stepwise) in which the PHQ-4 findings were stratified into four categories: no symptoms, only anxiety symptoms, only depression symptoms, and both symptoms. Results Research findings have shown that there are characteristics that predict greater exposure to significant symptoms of anxiety and depression (gender, age, and level of worry), with level of worry being the variable with the greatest impact on the model. Discussion and conclusion These data found during the COVID-19 pandemic intra-crisis period allow for early prediction of the negative outcomes associated with the pandemic, such as common mental disorders, and allocating interventions to help people to rationally deal with the stress related to this moment, regulating their emotions, and improving their overall mental health.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Introducción Las amenazas a la salud mental y el bienestar psicológico se han considerado entre las dimensiones más desafiantes de abordar en la pandemia de COVID-19. Objetivo Rastrear la ocurrencia de síntomas significativos de ansiedad y depresión y el nivel de preocupación entre los residentes en Brasil en junio de 2020. Método La muestra final totalizó 4,805 participantes de todos los estados brasileños. Se utilizó un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de salud (con preguntas relacionadas con el COVID-19), las versiones traducidas del Cuestionario Meta-Preocupación y el Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente de 4 ítems (PHQ-4). Los análisis inferenciales se calcularon utilizando la regresión logística multinomial (backward stepwise) en la que los hallazgos de PHQ-4 se estratificaron en cuatro categorías: sin síntomas, solo síntomas de ansiedad, solo síntomas de depresión y ambos síntomas. Resultados Los hallazgos de la investigación han demostrado que existían características que predecían una mayor exposición a síntomas significativos de ansiedad y depresión (género, edad y nivel de preocupación), siendo el nivel de preocupación la variable de mayor impacto en el modelo. Discusión y conclusión Los datos finales permiten la predicción temprana de los resultados negativos asociados con la pandemia, como los trastornos mentales comunes, y la asignación de intervenciones para ayudar a las personas a enfrentar racionalmente el estrés relacionado con este momento mediante una regulación de sus emociones y un mejoramiento de su salud mental.

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          Most cited references37

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          Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health in the General Population: A Systematic Review

          Highlights • The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. • Relatively high rates of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, and stress were reported in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in eight countries. • Common risk factors associated with mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic include female gender, younger age group (≤40 years), presence of chronic/psychiatric illnesses, unemployment, student status, and frequent exposure to social media/news concerning COVID-19. • Mitigation of COVID-19 induced psychological distress requires government intervention and individual efforts.
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            Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

            Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on public mental health. Therefore, monitoring and oversight of the population mental health during crises such as a panedmic is an immediate priority. The aim of this study is to analyze the existing research works and findings in relation to the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method In this systematic review and meta-analysis, articles that have focused on stress and anxiety prevalence among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic were searched in the Science Direct, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science (ISI) and Google Scholar databases, without a lower time limit and until May 2020. In order to perform a meta-analysis of the collected studies, the random effects model was used, and the heterogeneity of studies was investigated using the I2 index. Moreover. data analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. Results The prevalence of stress in 5 studies with a total sample size of 9074 is obtained as 29.6% (95% confidence limit: 24.3–35.4), the prevalence of anxiety in 17 studies with a sample size of 63,439 as 31.9% (95% confidence interval: 27.5–36.7), and the prevalence of depression in 14 studies with a sample size of 44,531 people as 33.7% (95% confidence interval: 27.5–40.6). Conclusion COVID-19 not only causes physical health concerns but also results in a number of psychological disorders. The spread of the new coronavirus can impact the mental health of people in different communities. Thus, it is essential to preserve the mental health of individuals and to develop psychological interventions that can improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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              Prevalence of Depression Symptoms in US Adults Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic

              Key Points Question What is the burden of depression symptoms among US adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared with before COVID-19, and what are the risk factors associated with depression symptoms? Findings In this survey study that included 1441 respondents from during the COVID-19 pandemic and 5065 respondents from before the pandemic, depression symptom prevalence was more than 3-fold higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before. Lower income, having less than $5000 in savings, and having exposure to more stressors were associated with greater risk of depression symptoms during COVID-19. Meaning These findings suggest that there is a high burden of depression symptoms in the US associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and that this burden falls disproportionately on individuals who are already at increased risk.

                Author and article information

                Salud mental
                Salud Ment
                Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (México, DF, Mexico )
                August 2022
                : 45
                : 4
                : 151-158
                [3] Sergipe orgnameUniversidade Federal de Sergipe Brazil
                [2] Sergipe orgnameUniversidade Federal de Sergipe Brazil
                [1] Sergipe Sergipe orgnameUniversity Center Estácio of Sergipe orgdiv1Psychology Department Brazil
                S0185-33252022000400151 S0185-3325(22)04500400151

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 8

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                Original articles

                Metapreocupación,trastornos mentales comunes,mental health,pandemics,COVID-19,common mental disorders,Meta-worry,salud mental,pandemias


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