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      Propensity score analysis of lung cancer risk in a population with high prevalence of non-smoking related lung cancer

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          Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide among both men and women in recent years. There is an increase in the incidence of nonsmoking-related lung cancer in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to investigate multiple potential risk factors for nonsmoking-related lung cancer among Asian Ethnic Groups.


          We used a propensity score-mated cohort analysis for this study. We retrospectively review the medical record of 1975 asymptomatic healthy subjects (40 ~ 80 years old) who voluntarily underwent low-dose chest CT from August 2013 to October 2014. Clinical information and nodule characteristics were recorded.


          A propensity score-mated cohort analysis was applied to adjust for potential bias and to create two comparable groups according to family history of lung cancer. For our primary analysis, we matched 392 pairs of subjects with family history of lung cancer and subjects without history. Logistic regression showed that female gender and a family history of lung cancer were the two most important predictor of lung cancer in the endemic area with high prevalence of nonsmoking-related lung cancer (OR = 11.199, 95% CI = 1.444–86.862; OR = 2.831, 95% CI = 1.000136–8.015). In addition, the number of nodules was higher in subjects with family history of lung cancer in comparison with subjects without family history of lung cancer (OR = 1.309, 95% CI = 1.066–1.607).


          In conclusion, risk-based prediction model based on the family history of lung cancer and female gender can potentially improve efficiency of lung cancer screening programs in Taiwan.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Lung cancer in never smokers: a review.

          Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Although tobacco smoking accounts for the majority of lung cancer, approximately 10% of patients with lung cancer in the United States are lifelong never smokers. Lung cancer in the never smokers (LCINS) affects women disproportionately more often than men. Only limited data are available on the etiopathogenesis, molecular abnormalities, and prognosis of LCINS. Several etiologic factors have been proposed for the development of LCINS, including exposure to radon, cooking fumes, asbestos, heavy metals, and environmental tobacco smoke, human papillomavirus infection, and inherited genetic susceptibility. However, the relative significance of these individual factors among different ethnic populations in the development of LCINS has not been well-characterized. Adenocarcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype reported with LCINS. Striking differences in response rates and outcomes are seen when patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are lifelong never smokers are treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors such as gefitinib or erlotinib compared with the outcomes with these agents in patients with tobacco-associated lung cancer. Interestingly, the activating mutations in the EGFR-TK inhibitors have been reported significantly more frequently in LCINS than in patients with tobacco-related NSCLC. This review will summarize available data on the epidemiology, risk factors, molecular genetics, management options, and outcomes of LCINS.
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            Multiple primary lung cancers.

             N. Martini,  M Melamed (1975)
            Data on 50 patients with multiple separate primary carcinomas of the lung are presented. Eighteen had synchronous tumors and 32 had metachronous tumors, the intervals between diagnoses varying from 4 months to 16 years. Histologic patterns in the two different carcinomas were the same in 31 patients, most commonly epidermoid, and they were different in 19 patients. The problems involved in establishing the diagnosis of multiple primary lung cancers, the choice of treatment, and the expectation for survival are discussed.
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              Lung cancer incidence in never smokers.

              Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although smoking remains the predominant cause of lung cancer, lung cancer in never smokers is an increasingly prominent public health issue. However, data on this topic, particularly lung cancer incidence rates in never smokers, are limited. We reviewed the existing literature on lung cancer incidence and mortality rates among never smokers and present new data regarding rates in never smokers from the following large, prospective cohorts: Nurses' Health Study; Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; California Teachers Study; Multiethnic Cohort Study; Swedish Lung Cancer Register in the Uppsala/Orebro region; and First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. Truncated age-adjusted incidence rates of lung cancer among never smokers age 40 to 79 years in these six cohorts ranged from 14.4 to 20.8 per 100,000 person-years in women and 4.8 to 13.7 per 100,000 person-years in men, supporting earlier observations that women are more likely than men to have non-smoking-associated lung cancer. The distinct biology of lung cancer in never smokers is apparent in differential responses to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and an increased prevalence of adenocarcinoma histology in never smokers. Lung cancer in never smokers is an important public health issue, and further exploration of its incidence patterns, etiology, and biology is needed.

                Author and article information

                BMC Pulm Med
                BMC Pulm Med
                BMC Pulmonary Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                6 September 2017
                6 September 2017
                : 17
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0572 9992, GRID grid.415011.0, Department of Radiology, , Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, ; Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0425 5914, GRID grid.260770.4, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, , Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, ; Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0572 9992, GRID grid.415011.0, Research Center of Medical Informatics, , Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, ; Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9476 5696, GRID grid.412019.f, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, , Kaohsiung Medical University, ; Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2017


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