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Yunnan Baiyao Conditioned Medium Promotes the Odonto/Osteogenic Capacity of Stem Cells from Apical Papilla via Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway

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      Abstract

      Yunnan Baiyao is a traditional Chinese herbal remedy that has long been used for its characteristics of wound healing, bone regeneration, and anti-inflammation. However, the effects of Yunnan Baiyao on the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and the potential mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the odonto/osteogenic differentiation effects of Yunnan Baiyao on SCAPs and the underlying mechanisms involved. SCAPs were isolated and cocultured with Yunnan Baiyao conditioned media. The proliferation ability was determined by cell counting kit 8 and flow cytometry. The differentiation capacity and the involvement of NF-κB pathway were investigated by alkaline phosphatase assay, alizarin red staining, immunofluorescence assay, real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analyses. Yunnan Baiyao conditioned medium at the concentration of 50 μg/mL upregulated alkaline phosphatase activity, induced more mineralized nodules, and increased the expression of odonto/osteogenic genes/proteins (e.g., OCN/OCN, OPN/OPN, OSX/OSX, RUNX2/RUNX2, ALP/ALP, COL-I/COL-I, DMP1, DSP/DSPP) of SCAPs. In addition, the expression of cytoplasmic phos-IκBα, phos-P65, and nuclear P65 was significantly increased in Yunnan Baiyao conditioned medium treated SCAPs in a time-dependent manner. Conversely, the differentiation of Yunnan Baiyao conditioned medium treated SCAPs was obviously inhibited when these stem cells were cocultured with the specific NF-κB inhibitor BMS345541. Yunnan Baiyao can promote the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of SCAPs via the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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      MicroRNA-204 regulates Runx2 protein expression and mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation.

      Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into a particular lineage is tightly regulated, and malfunction of this regulation could lead to pathological consequences. Patients with osteoporosis have increased adipocyte accumulation, but the mechanisms involved remain to be defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate if microRNAs regulate mesenchymal progenitor cells and bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) differentiation through modulation of Runx2, a key transcription factor for osteogenesis. We found that miR-204 and its homolog miR-211 were expressed in mesenchymal progenitor cell lines and BMSCs and their expression was induced during adipocyte differentiation, whereas Runx2 protein expression was suppressed. Retroviral overexpression of miR-204 or transfection of miR-204 oligo decreased Runx2 protein levels and miR-204 inhibition significantly elevated Runx2 protein levels, suggesting that miR-204 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Runx2 in mesenchymal progenitor cells and BMSCs. Mutations of putative miR-204 binding sites upregulated the Runx2 3'-UTR reporter activity, suggesting that miR-204/211 bind to Runx2 3'-UTR. Perturbation of miR-204 resulted in altered differentiation fate of mesenchymal progenitor cells and BMSCs: osteoblast differentiation was inhibited and adipocyte differentiation was promoted when miR-204 was overexpressed in these cells, whereasosteogenesis was upregulated and adipocyte formation was impaired when miR-204 was inhibited. Together, our data demonstrated that miR-204/211 act as important endogenous negative regulators of Runx2, which inhibit osteogenesis and promote adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitor cells and BMSCs.
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        The hidden treasure in apical papilla: the potential role in pulp/dentin regeneration and bioroot engineering.

        Some clinical case reports have shown that immature permanent teeth with periradicular periodontitis or abscess can undergo apexogenesis after conservative endodontic treatment. A call for a paradigm shift and new protocol for the clinical management of these cases has been brought to attention. Concomitantly, a new population of mesenchymal stem cells residing in the apical papilla of permanent immature teeth recently has been discovered and was termed stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP). These stem cells appear to be the source of odontoblasts that are responsible for the formation of root dentin. Conservation of these stem cells when treating immature teeth may allow continuous formation of the root to completion. This article reviews current findings on the isolation and characterization of these stem cells. The potential role of these stem cells in the following respects will be discussed: (1) their contribution in continued root maturation in endodontically treated immature teeth with periradicular periodontitis or abscess and (2) their potential utilization for pulp/dentin regeneration and bioroot engineering.
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          Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes Reveals Modulation of Angiogenesis via Nuclear Factor-KappaB Signaling.

          Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are known to facilitate healing of ischemic tissue related diseases through proangiogenic secretory proteins. Recent studies further show that MSC derived exosomes function as paracrine effectors of angiogenesis, however, the identity of which components of the exosome proteome responsible for this effect remains elusive. To address this we used high-resolution isoelectric focusing coupled liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, an unbiased high throughput proteomics approach to comprehensively characterize the proteinaceous contents of MSCs and MSC derived exosomes. We probed the proteome of MSCs and MSC derived exosomes from cells cultured under expansion conditions and under ischemic tissue simulated conditions to elucidate key angiogenic paracrine effectors present and potentially differentially expressed in these conditions. In total, 6,342 proteins were identified in MSCs and 1,927 proteins in MSC derived exosomes, representing to our knowledge the first time these proteomes have been probed comprehensively. Multilayered analyses identified several putative paracrine effectors of angiogenesis present in MSC exosomes and increased in expression in MSCs exposed to ischemic tissue-simulated conditions; these include platelet derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and most notably nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkB) signaling pathway proteins. NFkB signaling was identified as a key mediator of MSC exosome induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells by functional in vitro validation using a specific inhibitor. Collectively, the results of our proteomic analysis show that MSC derived exosomes contain a robust profile of angiogenic paracrine effectors, which have potential for the treatment of ischemic tissue-related diseases.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Stomatology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
            2Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases of Jiangsu Province and Stomatological Institute of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
            3Endodontic Department, School of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
            4Department of Stomatology, Nanjing Central Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
            5Endodontic Department, Nantong Stomatological Hospital, Nantong, Jiangsu, China
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Evandro Piva

            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3059-9897
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4874-9910
            Journal
            Biomed Res Int
            Biomed Res Int
            BMRI
            BioMed Research International
            Hindawi
            2314-6133
            2314-6141
            2019
            23 April 2019
            : 2019
            6507233
            10.1155/2019/9327386
            Copyright © 2019 Xiyao Pang et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Funding
            Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
            Award ID: 81371144
            Funded by: Medical Talent Project of Jiangsu Province
            Award ID: ZDRCA2016086
            Funded by: Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions
            Award ID: 2014-37
            Funded by: Science and Technology Development Project of Jiangsu Province
            Award ID: BE2017731
            Categories
            Research Article

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