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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose


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          Mebendazole (MBZ) is an extremely insoluble and therefore poorly absorbed drug and the variable clinical results may correlate with blood concentrations. The necessity of a prolonged high dose treatment of this drug increases the risk of adverse effects.


          In the present study we prepared redispersible microparticles (RDM) containing MBZ, an oral, poorly water-soluble drug, in different proportions of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC). We investigated the microparticulate structures that emerge spontaneously upon dispersion of an RDM in aqueous medium and elucidated their influence on dissolution, and also on their oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency using a murine model of infection with the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis.


          Elevated percentages of dissolved drug were obtained with RDM at 1:2.5 and 1:5 ratios of MBZ: L-HPC. Thermal analysis showed an amorphization of MBZ in the RDM by the absence of a clear MBZ melting peak in formulations. The rapid dissolution behavior could be due to the decreased drug crystallinity, the fast dissolution time of carriers as L-HPC, together with its superior dispersibility and excellent wetting properties. RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 resulted in increased maximum plasma concentration and area(s) under the curve (AUC) 0-∞ values. Likewise, after oral administration of the RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 the AUC 0-∞ were 2.67- and 2.97-fold higher, respectively, compared to those of pure MBZ. Therapeutic activity, assessed on the Trichinella spiralis life cycle, showed that RDM-1:5 was the most effective in reducing the number of parasites (4.56-fold) as compared to pure MBZ, on the encysted stage.


          The MBZ: L-HPC RDM might be an effective way of improving oral bioavailability and therapeutic activity using low doses of MBZ (5 mg/kg), which implies a low degree of toxicity for humans.

          Most cited references40

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          Current trends and future perspectives of solid dispersions containing poorly water-soluble drugs.

          Over 40% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in development pipelines are poorly water-soluble drugs which limit formulation approaches, clinical application and marketability because of their low dissolution and bioavailability. Solid dispersion has been considered one of the major advancements in overcoming these issues with several successfully marketed products. A number of key references that describe state-of-the-art technologies have been collected in this review, which addresses various pharmaceutical strategies and future visions for the solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs according to the four generations of solid dispersions. This article reviews critical aspects and recent advances in formulation, preparation and characterization of solid dispersions as well as in-depth pharmaceutical solutions to overcome some problems and issues that limit the development and marketability of solid dispersion products.
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            Investigation of the release mechanism of a sparingly water-soluble drug from solid dispersions in hydrophilic carriers based on physical state of drug, particle size distribution and drug-polymer interactions.

            In the present study the release mechanism of the sparingly water-soluble drug felodipine (FELO) from particulate solid dispersions in PVP or PEG was investigated. FT-IR data indicated that a N-H...O hydrogen bond is formed between FELO and polymers. The drug-polymer interaction was theoretically studied with the density functional theory with the B3LYP exchange correlation function. The interaction energies have been estimated at -31.8 kJ/mol for PVP and -18.8 kJ/mol for PEG. Also, detailed vibrational analysis of the complexes showed that the red shift of the N-H bond stretching in FELO molecule due to H-bonding was higher in the FELO-PVP complex than in the FELO-PEG complex. Both the experimental and theoretical data indicated that a stronger interaction of FELO with PVP than with PEG was developed. The interactions of FELO with the polymer appeared to control the physical state (amorphous or crystalline) and the particle size of FELO in the solid dispersions. In the FELO/PVP dispersions, the drug is found as amorphous nanoparticles whereas in FELO/PEG dispersions the drug is dispersed as crystalline microparticles. The size of drug particles in the dispersion was also influenced by drug proportion, with an increase in drug content of the dispersion resulting in increased drug particle size. The particle size of drug, the proportion of drug in the dispersion and the properties of the polymer (molecular weight) appeared to determine the mechanism of drug release from the solid dispersions, which was drug diffusion (through the polymer layer)-controlled at low drug contents and drug dissolution-controlled at high drug contents. In situ DLS measurements indicate that the large initial particles of FELO/PVP and FELO/PEG solid dispersions with low drug content (10-20 wt%) are very rapidly decreased to smaller particles (including nanoparticles) during dissolution, leading to the observed impressive enhancement of FELO release rate from these dispersions.
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              Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis: towards novel chemotherapeutical treatment options.

              Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis are cestode parasites, of which the metacestode (larval) stages cause the neglected diseases cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), respectively. The benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are presently used for the chemotherapeutical treatment, alone or prior to and after surgery. However, in AE these benzimidazoles do not appear to be parasiticidal in vivo. In addition, failures in drug treatments as well as the occurrence of side-effects have been reported, leading to discontinuation of treatment or to progressive disease. Therefore, new drugs are needed to cure AE and CE. Strategies that are currently employed in order to identify novel chemotherapeutical treatment options include in vitro and in vivo testing of broad-spectrum anti-infective drugs or drugs that interfere with unlimited proliferation of cancer cells. The fact that the genome of E. multilocularis has recently been sequenced has opened other avenues, such as the selection of novel drugs that interfere with the parasite signalling machinery, and the application of in silico approaches by employing the Echinococcus genome information to search for suitable targets for compounds of known mode of action.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                18 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1467-1479
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
                [2 ]Institute of Industrial Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares (Madrid), Spain
                [5 ]Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Santiago Torrado Durán, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Avda Complutense s/n 28040, Madrid, Spain, Tel +34 913 941 620, Fax +34 913 941 736, Email torrado2@ 123456farm.ucm.es
                © 2014 de la Torre-Iglesias et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                benzimidazole carbamates,redispersible microparticles,in vitro dissolution,pharmacokinetics,anthelmintic activity,trichinella spiralis


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