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      The Potential Role of Advanced Glycation End Product and iNOS in Chronic Renal Failure-Related Testicular Dysfunction

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          Objectives: To investigate the impact of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in chronic renal failure (CRF)-associated testicular dysfunction in an experimental model. In additionally, we examined whether different peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids could contribute to the elevation in AGE level and iNOS expression in the testes. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, 10 and 12 weeks of age and weighing 200–330 g, were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as the control group. In group 2, CRF was induced and a peritoneal catheter was implanted, but the dialysis procedure was not performed until the end of the study. In group 3, CRF was induced and PD was performed with dialysis fluids containing 1.36% glucose and icodextrin. In group 4, CRF rats received dialysis fluids containing 3.86% glucose and icodextrin. Finally, an indwelling catheter was implanted and the dialysis procedure was performed using dialysis fluids containing 3.86% glucose and icodextrin (group 5). Chronic PD began 4 weeks after insertion of the catheter. Each morning, this fluid was drained and 20 ml dialysis fluid, containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose, was given intraperitoneally for 4 h in unanesthetized animals. Each evening, 20 ml icodextrin was given for 10 h. The dialysis procedure was performed for 8 weeks. The AGE level was determined from the 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content of penis samples and iNOS expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: The elevation of 5-HMF was significant in the testes from groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 when compared with group 1. Furthermore, the differences between groups 2 and 4, 3 and 4, and 4 and 5 were also significant (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of iNOS predominantly in the Leydig cells. While iNOS staining was significantly lower in group 1 than in other groups, there were also significant differences between groups 2 and 3, 2 and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 5, and 4 and 5 (p < 0.05). Finally, a significant statistical correlation was found between the 5-HMF and iNOS levels (r = 0.698, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The present study identifies, for the first time, a potential role of AGE and iNOS in experimental CRF-associated testicular dysfunction. In addition, we found that PD fluids containing glucose contribute to this effect. These results may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiological pathway in CRF-related testicular dysfunction.

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          Identification of pentosidine as a native structure for advanced glycation end products in beta-2-microglobulin-containing amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis.

          beta-2-Microglobulin (beta-2m) is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). Recently, we found that the pigmented and fluorescent adducts formed nonenzymatically between sugar and protein, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), were present in beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils, suggesting the possible involvement of AGE-modified beta-2m in bone and joint destruction in DRA. As an extension of our search for the native structure of AGEs in beta-2m of patients with DRA, the present study focused on pentosidine, a fluorescent cross-linked glycoxidation product. Determination by both HPLC assay and competitive ELISA demonstrated a significant amount of pentosidine in amyloid-fibril beta-2m from long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA, and the acidic isoform of beta-2m in the serum and urine of hemodialysis patients. A further immunohistochemical study revealed the positive immunostaining for pentosidine and immunoreactive AGEs and beta-2m in macrophage-infiltrated amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients with DRA. These findings implicate a potential link of glycoxidation products in long-lived beta-2m-containing amyloid fibrils to the pathogenesis of DRA.
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            Evidence for Production and Functional Activity of Nitric Oxide in Seminiferous Tubules and Blood Vessels of the Human Testis

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              Nitric oxide synthase patterns in normal and varicocele testis in adolescents


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2003
                08 September 2003
                : 23
                : 5
                : 361-368
                Departments of aUrology, bHistology and Embryology, cBiochemistry, dBiostatistics, and eNephrology, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
                72971 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:361–368
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 39, Pages: 8
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                Original Article: Laboratory Investigation


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