İsmail Türker Köksal a , Mustafa Faruk Usta a , Gökhan Akkoyunlu b , Behiye Toptaş c , Kemal Hakan Gülkesen d , Tibet Erdogru a , Murat Tuncer e , Aslı Baykal c , Fevzi Ersoy e , Ramazan Demir b , Mehmet Baykara a
08 September 2003
Objectives: To investigate the impact of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in chronic renal failure (CRF)-associated testicular dysfunction in an experimental model. In additionally, we examined whether different peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids could contribute to the elevation in AGE level and iNOS expression in the testes. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats, 10 and 12 weeks of age and weighing 200–330 g, were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as the control group. In group 2, CRF was induced and a peritoneal catheter was implanted, but the dialysis procedure was not performed until the end of the study. In group 3, CRF was induced and PD was performed with dialysis fluids containing 1.36% glucose and icodextrin. In group 4, CRF rats received dialysis fluids containing 3.86% glucose and icodextrin. Finally, an indwelling catheter was implanted and the dialysis procedure was performed using dialysis fluids containing 3.86% glucose and icodextrin (group 5). Chronic PD began 4 weeks after insertion of the catheter. Each morning, this fluid was drained and 20 ml dialysis fluid, containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose, was given intraperitoneally for 4 h in unanesthetized animals. Each evening, 20 ml icodextrin was given for 10 h. The dialysis procedure was performed for 8 weeks. The AGE level was determined from the 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content of penis samples and iNOS expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: The elevation of 5-HMF was significant in the testes from groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 when compared with group 1. Furthermore, the differences between groups 2 and 4, 3 and 4, and 4 and 5 were also significant (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of iNOS predominantly in the Leydig cells. While iNOS staining was significantly lower in group 1 than in other groups, there were also significant differences between groups 2 and 3, 2 and 4, 2 and 5, 3 and 5, and 4 and 5 (p < 0.05). Finally, a significant statistical correlation was found between the 5-HMF and iNOS levels (r = 0.698, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The present study identifies, for the first time, a potential role of AGE and iNOS in experimental CRF-associated testicular dysfunction. In addition, we found that PD fluids containing glucose contribute to this effect. These results may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiological pathway in CRF-related testicular dysfunction.