Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline anticancer drug, which is often associated with drug resistance and cytotoxicity. More unfortunately, the biological barrier in the human environment can weaken the efficacy of DOX, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This work attempts to make efforts to solve this problem. We used polyethylene glycol distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) as a nanocarrier and DOX as a model drug to construct a composite nanodrug (TF-PEG-DSPE/DOX NPs) by coupling transferrin (TF). The results of glioma experiments show that the nanodrug can effectively penetrate BBB to achieve an antitumor effect.