As early as 1932, basophil cells have been considered to be involved in the corticotropic and melanotropic functions due to their proliferation during Cushing’s disease. Later on, opposite opinions were held and other cells suggested to be implied in the tumor process: chromophobe, acidophil or even follicular cells. Moreover, new categories of basophil cells have been evidenced through sophisticated staining methods, in animal and human pituitaries. At the same time, the prevalent dogma ‘one hormone-one cell’ raised the problem of the search for both a corticotroph and a melanotroph in the human pituitary, which is devoid of an intermediate lobe. Since 1960, immunocytochemistry became a reliable method and simultaneously new peptides have been found. However, these peptides share common sequences of amino acids, thus raising questions as to the specificity of the antisera. Most authors mention the reaction to the basophil cells previously considered as melanotrophs and called β or R [here β(R)]. These large rounded cells, showing red granules after Alcian blue-PAS staining, are mostly located in the median area of the anterior lobe, in the cystiform zone and in cell cords invading the neural lobe. In the fetal pituitary, reactivity is observed either in some differentiated β(R) cells or, earlier, in chromophobe cells.The question is now raised whether one cell may contain several peptides and, in this case, whether the different peptides are carried by the same granule. Technical procedures using numerous antisera on serial sections have shown associations at the level of a given cell (and of a given granule under the electron microscope). However, dissociations are also to be noticed, as far as ACTH and β-MSH (adult) and more particularly α-MSH (adult and fetus) are concerned.