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      Hygrophorus subsection Hygrophorus (Hygrophoraceae, Agaricales) in China

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          Hygrophorus subsect. Hygrophorus has been relatively well-studied in Europe and North America, but studies on the taxa in Asia, particularly in China, are still limited. In this study, phylogenetic overviews of genus Hygrophorus , based on the nuclear large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA gene and of subsect. Hygrophorus , based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were generated. Four new species, i.e. H. brunneodiscus , H. fuscopapillatus , H. glutiniceps and H. griseodiscus are described from southern China; and a rarely reported edible species H. hedrychii is described in detail, based upon the materials from north-eastern China. The main characteristics of the species under subsect. Hygrophorus worldwide are summarised in a table.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Abstract GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 400 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using BankIt, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Submission Portal, or the tool tbl2asn. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to sequence identifiers, submission wizards for 16S and Influenza sequences, and an Identical Protein Groups resource.
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            Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales)

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              Controversy over Hygrophorus cossus settled using ITS sequence data from 200 year-old type material.

              Sowerby described Agaricus cossus in 1799. The fungus possessed a smell, resembling that of a wounded larva of Cossus cossus (Lepidoptera). The species belongs in Hygrophorus, and since more than one white Hygrophorus species has this distinctive smell the epithet cossus has been variously interpreted. The complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the original type collection made in 1794, preserved in the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew herbarium, was successfully sequenced. Comparison with the ITS sequences from four other white aromatic-acidulous smelling Hygrophorus species, including the type specimen of H. quercetorum, showed that H. cossus is a species associated with Quercus and an older name for H. quercetorum. The differences in basidiome colouration developing with age and host-tree association appear to be the most useful characters to discriminate between the four species with a Cossus cossus smell. A table of morphological and ecological characters is provided.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                26 June 2020
                : 68
                : 49-73
                [1 ] Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510070, Guangdong, China Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences Guangdong China
                [2 ] Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066, Sichuan, China Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences Chengdu China
                [3 ] Jishou University, Zhangjiajie 427000, Hunan, China Jishou University Hunan China
                [4 ] College of Life Sciences, Chifeng University, Chifeng 024000, Inner Mongolia, China Chifeng University Chifeng China
                [5 ] College of Pharmacy-Transgenic Laboratory, Hainan Medical University, Haikou 571199, Hainan, China Hainan Medical University Haikou China
                [6 ] Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming China
                [7 ] State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Tai-Hui Li ( mycolab@ 123456263.net )

                Academic editor: María P. Martín

                Chao-Qun Wang, Tai-Hui Li, Ming Zhang, Xiao-Lan He, Wei-Qiang Qin, Tie-Zhi Liu, Nian-Kai Zeng, Xiang-Hua Wang, Jian-Wei Liu, Tie-Zheng Wei, Jiang Xu, Yue-Qiu Li, Ya-Heng Shen

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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