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      Preparedness for Tobacco Control Among Postgraduate Residents of a Medical College in Bangalore


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          Tobacco use is a major cause of avoidable mortality. Postgraduate doctors in training are an important group of physicians likely to influence patients’ tobacco use/cessation.


          To assess preparedness for tobacco control among clinical postgraduate residents of a medical college in southern India.

          Materials and Methods:

          A cross-sectional study was undertaken among all clinical postgraduate residents enrolled in St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding tobacco cessation in their patients. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used. Simple descriptive analysis was undertaken.


          The overall response rate was 66% (76/116). Mean (S.D.) knowledge score on tobacco use prevalence and disease burden was 6.2 (2.0) out of 10. About 25% of them were not aware of nicotine replacement therapy as a treatment option for tobacco cessation. Nearly two thirds of them expected their patients to ask for assistance with quitting and nearly half were sceptical about patients’ ability to quit. While 80% of them enquired routinely about tobacco use in their patients, only 50% offered advice on quitting and less than a third assessed readiness to quit or offered assistance with quitting in their patients.


          Our study revealed suboptimal levels of knowledge and tobacco cessation practice among postgraduate residents. Attitudes toward tobacco cessation by their patients was however generally positive and there was substantial interest in further training in tobacco control. Reorienting postgraduate medical education to include tobacco control interventions would enable future physicians to be better equipped to deal with nicotine addiction.

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          Most cited references31

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          The process of smoking cessation: an analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change.

          Traditionally smoking cessation studies use smoker and nonsmoker categories almost exclusively to represent individuals quitting smoking. This study tested the transtheoretical model of change that posits a series of stages through which smokers move as they successfully change the smoking habit. Subjects in precontemplation (n = 166), contemplation (n = 794), and preparation (n = 506) stages of change were compared on smoking history, 10 processes of change, pretest self-efficacy, and decisional balance, as well as 1-month and 6-month cessation activity. Results strongly support the stages of change model. All groups were similar on smoking history but differed dramatically on current cessation activity. Stage differences predicted attempts to quit smoking and cessation success at 1- and 6-month follow-up. Implications for recruitment, intervention, and research are discussed.
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            A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: A US Public Health Service report. The Tobacco Use and Dependence Clinical Practice Guideline Panel, Staff, and Consortium Representatives.

            To summarize the recently published US Public Health Service report Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: A Clinical Practice Guideline, which provides recommendations for brief clinical interventions, intensive clinical interventions, and system changes to promote the treatment of tobacco dependence. An independent panel of 18 scientists, clinicians, consumers, and methodologists selected by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. A consortium of 7 governmental and nonprofit organizations sponsored the update. Approximately 6000 English-language, peer-reviewed articles and abstracts, published between 1975 and 1999, were reviewed for data that addressed assessment and treatment of tobacco dependence. This literature served as the basis for more than 50 meta-analyses. One panel meeting and numerous conference calls and staff meetings were held to evaluate meta-analytic and other results, to synthesize the results, and to develop recommendations. The updated guideline was then externally reviewed by more than 70 experts and revised. This evidence-based, updated guideline provides specific recommendations regarding brief and intensive tobacco cessation interventions as well as system-level changes designed to promote the assessment and treatment of tobacco use. Brief clinical approaches for patients willing and unwilling to quit are described. Major conclusions and recommendations include: (1) Tobacco dependence is a chronic condition that warrants repeated treatment until long-term or permanent abstinence is achieved. (2) Effective treatments for tobacco dependence exist and all tobacco users should be offered those treatments. (3) Clinicians and health care delivery systems must institutionalize the consistent identification, documentation, and treatment of every tobacco user at every visit. (4) Brief tobacco dependence treatment is effective, and every tobacco user should be offered at least brief treatment. (5) There is a strong dose-response relationship between the intensity of tobacco dependence counseling and its effectiveness. (6) Three types of counseling were found to be especially effective-practical counseling, social support as part of treatment, and social support arranged outside of treatment. (7) Five first-line pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence-sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride, nicotine gum, nicotine inhaler, nicotine nasal spray, and nicotine patch-are effective, and at least 1 of these medications should be prescribed in the absence of contraindications. (8) Tobacco dependence treatments are cost-effective relative to other medical and disease prevention interventions; as such, all health insurance plans should include as a reimbursed benefit the counseling and pharmacotherapeutic treatments identified as effective in the updated guideline. JAMA. 2000;283:3244-3254
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              Tobacco addiction.

              Tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per year worldwide and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Comprehensive programmes for tobacco control can substantially reduce the frequency of tobacco use. An important component of a comprehensive programme is the provision of treatment for tobacco addiction. Treatment involves targeting several aspects of addiction including the underlying neurobiology and behavioural processes. Furthermore, building an infrastructure in health systems that encourages and helps with cessation, as well as expansion of the accessibility of treatments, is necessary. Although pharmacological and behavioural treatments are effective in improving cessation success, the rate of relapse to smoking remains high, emphasising the strong addictive nature of nicotine. The future of treatment resides in improvement in patient matching to treatment, combination or novel drugs, and viewing nicotine addiction as a chronic disorder that might need long-term treatment.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Community Med
                Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine
                Medknow Publications (India )
                Apr-Jun 2011
                : 36
                : 2
                : 104-108
                [1]Division of Epidemiology, St. John's Research Institute, Koramangala, Bangalore, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Prem K. Mony, St. John's Research Institute, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, 100 feet road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. E-mail: prem_mony@ 123456sjri.res.in
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Community Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Public health
                india,tobacco cessation,postgraduate medical education
                Public health
                india, tobacco cessation, postgraduate medical education


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