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      Hepatitis E: Update on Prevention and Control

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          Abstract

          Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries. However, this review shows that further studies are required to demonstrate the importance of preventive vaccination and treatment worldwide, with emphasis on hepatitis E infection in the public health system.

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          Most cited references 72

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          Long-term efficacy of a hepatitis E vaccine.

          Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute hepatitis. The long-term efficacy of a hepatitis E vaccine needs to be determined.
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            Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients with cirrhosis is associated with rapid decompensation and death.

            India is hyper-endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV infection in cirrhosis may cause high mortality. Prospective study evaluating HEV infection in cirrhotics is scarce. Consecutive patients with cirrhosis and healthy controls were included. Cirrhotics were categorized to 3 groups, (Group I - rapid decompensation, Group II - chronically decompensated, Group III - cirrhotics without decompensation). Sera from cirrhotics and controls were tested for HEV-RNA (RT-PCR). HEV-RNA positivity among cirrhotics and controls was compared. Natural course and mortality rate between HEV infected and non-infected cirrhotics were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. 107 cirrhotics and 200 controls were included. 30 (28%) cirrhotics and 9 (4.5%) controls had detectable HEV-RNA (p<0.001). HEV- RNA positivity among Group I (n=42), II (n=32) and III (n=33) cirrhotics was 21 (50%), 6 (19%) and 3 (10%), respectively (p=0.002). 70% (21/30) with HEV infection and 27% (21/77) without it had rapid decompensation (p=0.001). Mortality between HEV infected and non-infected cirrhotics at 4 weeks (43% vs. 22%, p=0.001) and 12 month (70% vs. 30%, p=0.001) was different. Multivariate analysis identified HEV infection, Child-Pugh's score, renal failure, and sepsis as independent factors for mortality. In India, cirrhotics were prone to HEV infection, which was associated with rapid decompensation and death.
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              Study of an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B type.

               M S Khuroo (1980)
              A common source waterborne epidemic of viral hepatitis was studied in Kashmir valley over the six month period from November 1978 to April 1979. Highly sensitive serologic tests for hepatitis B and hepatitis A failed to reveal either one as an etiologic agent of hepatitis. Of 16620 inhabitants of the area screened four times in these six months, viral hepatitis developed in 1.65 per cent. In addition, 27.3 per cent of 128 persons who had contacts with patients who had viral hepatitis had biochemical features of anicteric hepatitis. The mode of spread of the epidemic, length of incubation, clinical features and biochemical test results of the patients studied resembled that of hepatitis A. These findings were in contrast to that of non-A, non-B hepatitis following transfusion, which closely resembles hepatitis B. The data strongly suggest the possibility of another human hepatitis virus and established the fecal oral route of its spread.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2018
                9 January 2018
                : 2018
                Affiliations
                1Ambulatório/Laboratório de Hepatites Virais, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                2Laboratório de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico em Virologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Antonio Rivero-Juarez

                Article
                10.1155/2018/5769201
                5818934
                Copyright © 2018 Juliana Gil Melgaço et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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