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      Caracterización de Sitios de Alimentación de Vacunos a Pastoreo en Comunidades Heterogéneas en el Estado Cojedes, Venezuela Translated title: Characterization of Feeding Sites of Grazing Cattle on Heterogeneous Community at Cojedes State, Venezuela

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          Abstract

          Se realizó el estudio para caracterizar los sitios de alimentación de vacunos a pastoreo en comunidades de sabanas y bosques en el estado Cojedes. Para tal fin, cada animal fue observado una sola vez/día, mientras duró su consumo y marcado su recorrido (transecta animal, TAn), el entorno más cercano (transecta control, TC) así como el paisaje en general (transecta aleatoria, TA). Las evaluaciones se hicieron durante 3 días consecutivos cada 3 semanas por 2 años. Sobre TAn y en cada sitio de alimentación se evaluó: número de especies totales, número de especies seleccionadas, altura de la pastura, cobertura, altura de consumo y partes consumidas, identificación taxonómica y funcional de plantas y sobre TC y TA, sólo número de especies totales. Se aplicó un ANAVAR, con año, comunidad y periodo, como fuentes de variación. Hubo diferencias significativas (P<0,05) para todas las variables evaluadas, excepto para las especies seleccionadas en TAn. Tanto los sitios de alimentación, como el entorno y el paisaje en general, fueron más diversos durante el primer año, lo que parece ser decisivo en las distancias recorridas. La heterogeneidad del paisaje tuvo efecto sobre los patrones de selección y de distribución de los animales. Los animales consumieron 38 especies, de las cuales el 66%, pertenecían a los (TFP) Caespiticulmi (21%), Nothopluviiarbore (18%), Tropoarbore (16%) y Teroculmi (11%); mientras que el resto (34%) estuvo distribuido en 10 TFP diferentes, con predominio de tipos herbáceos (Fasciculmi, Teroherbae, Herbae, Herbolianae aestivae y H. perennae). También, se observó consumo de especies arbóreas. Se concluye que la caracterización detallada del sitio de alimentación del animal y de su entorno, permite obtener información para definir estrategias de manejo sustentable y de planificación del pastoreo en áreas altamente heterogéneas. Los resultados evidencian variaciones espaciales y temporales en la selectividad de especies.

          Translated abstract

          A study was conducted to characterize the feeding sites of grazing cattle on savannas and forests communities of Cojedes state. Each animal was observed once a day, while its consumption lasted and its route (Animal transect, TAn), the nearest surroundings (Control transect, TC), and the landscape in general (Random transect, TA) were marked for characterization. Evaluations were made for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks for 2 years. It was evaluated on each TAn and feeding site: number of total species, number of selected species, height of pasture, coverage, consumption height and consumed parts, taxonomical and functional identification of plants; and on both TC and TA, only the number of total species, the number of total species only. Variables were analyzed through an ANOVA with year, period, and community as sources of variation. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) on TAn for all assessed variables, except for the selected species. The feeding sites, the surroundings, and the landscape in general, were more diverse during the first year, which seems to be decisive in the distances walked by animals. Landscape heterogeneity had an effect on patterns of selection distribution of animals. Animals consumed 38 species, of which 66% belonged to the functional types of plants (FTP) Caespiticulmi (21%), Nothopluviiarbore (18%), Tropoarbore (16%), and Teroculmi (11%), while the rest (34%) was distributed in 10 different FTP, with a predominance of herbaceous types (Fasciculmi, Teroherbae, Herbae, Herbolianae aestivae, and H. perennae). Consumption of trees species was observed. It is concluded that the detailed characterization of animal´s feeding sites and their surroundings, allows information for defining strategies for sustainable management and planning of grazing on highly heterogeneous areas. Results show spatial and temporal variations in species selectivity.

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          Most cited references29

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          The effect of plant structure on the intake of tropical pastures. I. Variation in the bite size of grazing cattle

          TH Stobbs (1973)
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            Sample Preparation Techniques for Microhistological Analysis

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              Daily selection of feeding areas by cattle in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rfcv
                Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
                Rev. Fac. Cienc. Vet.
                Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Central de Venezuela.
                0258-6576
                June 2016
                : 57
                : 1
                : 32-42
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Central de Venezuela
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional Experimental Rómulo Gallegos
                [3 ] Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas
                Article
                S0258-65762016000100004
                bbff7974-69a0-4f4f-a3d5-f368373d54ed

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0258-6576&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                VETERINARY SCIENCES

                Animal agriculture,General veterinary medicine
                Alimentación animal,ganado bovino,pastoreo,razas (Brahman),cobertura,medio ambiente,histología animal,Cojedes,Animal feeding,cattle,grazing,breeds Brahman,cover,environment,animal histology

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