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      FDA Critical Path Initiatives: Opportunities for Generic Drug Development

      The AAPS Journal

      Springer US

      bioequivalence, critical path initiative, generic drugs

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          Abstract

          FDA’s critical path initiative documents have focused on the challenges involved in the development of new drugs. Some of the focus areas identified apply equally to the production of generic drugs. However, there are scientific challenges unique to the development of generic drugs as well. In May 2007, FDA released a document “Critical Path Opportunities for Generic Drugs” that identified some of the specific challenges in the development of generic drugs. The key steps in generic product development are usually characterization of the reference product, design of a pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent product, design of a consistent manufacturing process and conduct of the pivotal bioequivalence study. There are several areas of opportunity where scientific progress could accelerate the development and approval of generic products and expand the range of products for which generic versions are available, while maintaining high standards for quality, safety, and efficacy. These areas include the use of quality by design to develop bioequivalent products, more efficient bioequivalence methods for systemically acting drugs (expansion of BCS waivers, highly variable drugs), and development of new bioequivalence methods for locally acting drugs.

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          Most cited references 33

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          A theoretical basis for a biopharmaceutic drug classification: the correlation of in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability.

          A biopharmaceutics drug classification scheme for correlating in vitro drug product dissolution and in vivo bioavailability is proposed based on recognizing that drug dissolution and gastrointestinal permeability are the fundamental parameters controlling rate and extent of drug absorption. This analysis uses a transport model and human permeability results for estimating in vivo drug absorption to illustrate the primary importance of solubility and permeability on drug absorption. The fundamental parameters which define oral drug absorption in humans resulting from this analysis are discussed and used as a basis for this classification scheme. These Biopharmaceutic Drug Classes are defined as: Case 1. High solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 2. Low solubility-high permeability drugs, Case 3. High solubility-low permeability drugs, and Case 4. Low solubility-low permeability drugs. Based on this classification scheme, suggestions are made for setting standards for in vitro drug dissolution testing methodology which will correlate with the in vivo process. This methodology must be based on the physiological and physical chemical properties controlling drug absorption. This analysis points out conditions under which no in vitro-in vivo correlation may be expected e.g. rapidly dissolving low permeability drugs. Furthermore, it is suggested for example that for very rapidly dissolving high solubility drugs, e.g. 85% dissolution in less than 15 minutes, a simple one point dissolution test, is all that may be needed to insure bioavailability. For slowly dissolving drugs a dissolution profile is required with multiple time points in systems which would include low pH, physiological pH, and surfactants and the in vitro conditions should mimic the in vivo processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Characterization of the human upper gastrointestinal contents under conditions simulating bioavailability/bioequivalence studies.

            This study was conducted to compare the luminal composition of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the fasted and fed states in humans, with a view toward designing in vitro studies to explain/predict food effects on dosage form performance. Twenty healthy human subjects received 250 mL water or 500 mL Ensure plus (a complete nutrient drink) through a nasogastric tube and samples were aspirated from the gastric antrum or duodenum for a period up to 3.5 h, depending on location/fluid combination. Samples were analyzed for polyethylene glycol, pH, buffer capacity, osmolality, surface tension, pepsin, total carbohydrates, total protein content, and bile salts. Following Ensure plus administration, gastric pH was elevated, buffer capacity ranged from 14 to 28 mmoL L-1 DeltapH-1 (vs. 7-18 mmol L-1 DeltapH-1), contents were hyperosmolar, gastric pepsin levels doubled, and surface tension was 30% lower than after administration of water. Post- and preprandial duodenal pH values were initially similar, but slowly decreased to 5.2 postprandially, whereas buffer capacity increased from 5.6 mmol L-1 DeltapH-1 (fasted) to 18-30 mmol L-1 DeltapH-1 (p 30%, bile salt levels were two to four times higher, luminal contents were hyperosmotic, and the presence of peptides and sugars was confirmed. This work shows that, in addition to already well characterized parameters (e.g., pH, and bile salt levels), significant differences in buffer capacity, surface tension, osmolality, and food components are observed pre-/postprandially. These differences should be reflected in test media to predict food effects on intralumenal performance of dosage forms.
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              Particle size analysis in pharmaceutics: principles, methods and applications.

              Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drug substances and dosage forms can be highly affected by the particle size, a critical process parameter in pharmaceutical production. The fundamental issue with particle size analysis is the variety of equivalent particle diameters generated by different methods, which is largely ascribable to the particle shape and particle dispersion mechanism involved. Thus, to enable selection of the most appropriate or optimal sizing technique, cross-correlation between different techniques may be required. This review offers an in-depth discussion on particle size analysis pertaining to specific pharmaceutical applications and regulatory aspects, fundamental principles and terminology, instrumentation types, data presentation and interpretation, in-line and process analytical technology. For illustration purposes, special consideration is given to the analysis of aerosols using time-of-flight and cascade impactor measurements, which is supported by a computational analysis conducted for this review.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +1-240-2769315 , +1-240-2769327 , robert.lionberger@fda.hhs.gov
                Journal
                AAPS J
                The AAPS Journal
                Springer US (Boston )
                1550-7416
                20 February 2008
                20 February 2008
                March 2008
                : 10
                : 1
                : 103-109
                Affiliations
                Office of Generic Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Place, Rockville, Maryland 20850 USA
                9010
                10.1208/s12248-008-9010-2
                2751455
                18446510
                © American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2008
                Categories
                Review Article; Themed Issue: Bioequivalence, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, and Beyond/Guest Editor: James E. Polli
                Custom metadata
                © American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2008

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