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      Current Status and Perspectives Regarding the Treatment of Osteosarcoma: Chemotherapy

      research-article
      * ,
      Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
      Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
      Osteosarcoma, chemotherapy.

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          Abstract

          Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. The use of combination chemotherapy and surgery enables long-term survival in approximately 60-70% of cases. However, the necessity for surgery, the poor prognosis of patients with metastatic or recurrent disease (long-term survival in only about 20% of cases), and the lack of establishment of second-line chemotherapy suggest that improvements in chemotherapy are desperately needed. Currently, in an effort to extend the protocol with the chemotherapy drugs that already exist, high-dose chemotherapy with/without autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and tumor-targeted drug delivery systems are under investigation. Future drug developments will no doubt lie in the direction of immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy, as well as the use of cytotoxic drugs. Identifying the genes and signal transduction pathways responsible for the development of osteosarcoma or for the occurrence of malignancy in cases of osteosarcoma will undoubtedly lead to the identification of pathway-specific agents, or possible gene therapy. Furthermore, as increased light is shed on the character of osetoblastic differentiation in osteosarcoma, this will certainly give rise to new treatments utilizing differentiation therapy. This article reviews the current status and perspectives regarding the treatment of osteosarcoma in terms of chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references59

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          Osteosarcoma: a randomized, prospective trial of the addition of ifosfamide and/or muramyl tripeptide to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate.

          To determine whether the addition of ifosfamide and/or muramyl tripeptide (MTP) encapsulated in liposomes to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) could improve the probability for event-free survival (EFS) in newly diagnosed patients with osteosarcoma (OS). Six hundred seventy-seven patients with OS without clinically detectable metastatic disease were treated with one of four prospectively randomized treatments. All patients received identical cumulative doses of cisplatin, doxorubicin, and HDMTX and underwent definitive surgical resection of the primary tumor. Patients were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive ifosfamide and/or MTP in a 2 double dagger 2 factorial design. The primary end point for analysis was EFS. Patients treated with the standard arm of therapy had a 3-year EFS of 71%. We could not analyze the results by factorial design because we observed an interaction between the addition of ifosfamide and the addition of MTP. The addition of MTP to standard chemotherapy achieved a 3-year EFS rate of 68%. The addition of ifosfamide to standard chemotherapy achieved a 3-year EFS rate of 61%. The addition of both ifosfamide and MTP resulted in a 3-year EFS rate of 78%. The addition of ifosfamide in this dose schedule to standard chemotherapy did not enhance EFS. The addition of MTP to chemotherapy might improve EFS, but additional clinical and laboratory investigation will be necessary to explain the interaction between ifosfamide and MTP.
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            Osteosarcoma: anatomic and histologic variants.

            Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone, yet its absolute incidence among malignant tumors is low. Within its strict histologic definition, osteosarcoma comprises a family of lesions with considerable diversity in histologic features and grade. Its prognosis is dependent not only on these parameters, but also on its anatomic site. It may occur inside the bones (in the intramedullary or intracortical compartment), on the surfaces of bones, and in extraosseous sites. Information of diagnostic or prognostic significance has not been elucidated from studies of its cytogenetics. This review summarizes the anatomic and histologic variations of osteosarcoma and offers a schema for its subclassification.
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              Association between osteosarcoma and deleterious mutations in the RECQL4 gene in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.

              Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with an increased predisposition to osteosarcoma. Children with RTS typically present with a characteristic skin rash (poikiloderma), small stature, and skeletal dysplasias. Mutations in the RECQL4 gene, which encodes a RecQ DNA helicase, have been reported in a few RTS patients. We examined whether a predisposition to developing osteosarcoma among an international cohort of RTS patients was associated with a distinctive pattern of mutations in the RECQL4 gene. We obtained clinical information about and biologic samples from 33 RTS patients (age range = 1-30 years). Eleven patients were diagnosed with osteosarcoma. All 21 exons and 13 short introns of the RECQL4 gene were sequenced from the genomic DNA of all subjects. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the incidence of osteosarcoma among patients with and without mutations predicted to produce a truncated RECQL4 protein. Twenty-three RTS patients, including all 11 osteosarcoma patients, carried at least one of 19 truncating mutations in their RECQL4 genes. The incidence of osteosarcoma was 0.00 per year in truncating mutation-negative patients (100 person-years of observation) and 0.05 per year in truncating mutation-positive patients (230 person-years of observation) (P =.037; two-sided log-rank test). Mutations predicted to result in the loss of RECQL4 protein function occurred in approximately two-thirds of RTS patients and are associated with risk of osteosarcoma. Molecular diagnosis has the potential to identify those children with RTS who are at high risk of this cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rev Recent Clin Trials
                RRCT
                Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
                Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
                1574-8871
                1876-1038
                September 2008
                : 3
                : 3
                : 228-231
                Affiliations
                []Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Maidashi, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan; TEL: +81-92-642-5488; FAX; +81-92-642-5507; E-mail: akio@ 123456med.kyushu-u.ac.jp
                Article
                RRCT-3-228
                10.2174/157488708785700267
                2778092
                18782081
                bc046624-8a04-405c-aa17-bd28942f6270
                © 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 9 December 2007
                : 27 June 2008
                : 4 July 2008
                Categories
                Article

                Medicine
                osteosarcoma,chemotherapy.
                Medicine
                osteosarcoma, chemotherapy.

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