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      Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Translated title: Fungos anemófilos causando alergia respiratória em pacientes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará

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          Abstract

          The dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. Knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. Their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. The purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) from the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. First a research was made in Fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. Fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. The prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy). The positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. The predominant fungi in the air of Fortaleza were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Drechslera, Absidia and Alternaria. As determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (Aspergillus, Alternaria and Drechslera) were positive in all patients; two (Penicillium and Curvularia) were positive in thirty-five patients; two (Cladosporium and Mycelia sterilia) were positive in thirty patients; and three (Rhizopus, Absidia and Fusarium) were positive in nine patients. All the control tests were negative. All the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in Fortaleza.

          Translated abstract

          Os fungos anemófilos estão dispersos no ar atmosférico. O conhecimento dos fungos anemófilos em uma cidade é importante para o diagnóstico ecológico e o tratamento específico de manifestações alérgicas induzidas pela inalação de alérgenos. Os fungos alergênicos são usados para o diagnóstico e o tratamento da alergia em todo o mundo, o que provavelmente persistirá por muitos anos ainda. O objetivo deste trabalho foi fazer uma relação entre os fungos anemófilos e a alergia respiratória (asma e rinite) de pacientes da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Primeiro foi feita uma pesquisa dos fungos alergênicos dispersos no ar atmosférico da cidade de Fortaleza. Os extratos fúngicos alergênicos foram feitos a partir dos dez bolores mais predominantes do ar de Fortaleza, usando bicarbonato de sódio. Foram feitos testes da puntura em cinqüenta pacientes com alergia respiratória (asma e rinite) e dez pessoas saudáveis (sem alergia respiratória). O teste positivo foi feito com histamina e o teste negativo com uma preparação de bicarbonato de sódio. Os fungos predominantes no ar da cidade de Fortaleza foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Drechslera, Absidia e Alternaria. Como demonstrado pelo teste da puntura: três extratos fúngicos (Aspergillus, Alternaria e Drechslera) foram positivos em todos os pacientes; dois (Penicillium e Curvularia) foram positivos em trinta e cinco pacientes; dois (Cladosporium e Mycelia sterilia) foram positivos em trinta pacientes; e três (Rhizopus, Absidia e Fusarium) foram positivos em nove pacientes. Todos os testes controles foram negativos. Todos os dez fungos anemófilos mais predominantes isolados no ar podem provocar reações nos testes cutâneos em indivíduos com alergia respiratória na cidade de Fortaleza.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Tratado de Micologia médica

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            Permanent stained mycological preparation obtained by slide culture

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              Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. IV. Relation between asthma symptoms, spore counts and diagnostic tests.

               H-J Malling (1986)
              Twenty-four adult asthmatics with autumnal asthma and positive bronchial provocation test to the mould species Cladosporium were evaluated by daily symptoms scores during 11 weeks in the peak mould spore season. A significant association with fluctuation in Cladosporium spore count was found regarding the relative weekly symptom score (mean of subjective asthma and peak flow scores), relative use of antiasthmatic medication and the combined (total) score (mean of symptom and medication scores). The median weekly symptom, medication, and total scores were positively correlated to Cladosporium spore count, but only significantly so in the medication score. Eighteen patients were allergic to both Cladosporium and Alternaria, but asthma symptoms were not associated to Alternaria spore counts; on the contrary, a negative correlation indicated that Alternaria only played a minor role in eliciting asthma. Neither mugwort nor house dust mites seemed to be of importance. The results of diagnostic tests (bronchial provocation test, quantitative skin prick test, RAST and histamine release) were correlated to the mean absolute symptom score of the spore season. The highest correlation to asthma score, peak flow score, medication score, and the combined score was found with the bronchial provocation test. The data indicate that autumnal asthma, to a high degree, is elicited by Cladosporium spores, and further, that the specific allergic diagnosis can only be established by a combination of positive diagnostic tests and careful recording of symptoms elicited by the causative allergen.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                jbpml
                Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial
                J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (Rio de Janeiro )
                1678-4774
                April 2004
                : 40
                : 2
                : 79-84
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
                [2 ] Centro de Pneumologia do Ceará
                [3 ] Universidade Estadual do Ceará
                [4 ] Universidade de São Paulo
                Article
                S1676-24442004000200006
                10.1590/S1676-24442004000200006

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY
                MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL
                PATHOLOGY

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