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      Giant Brachial Aneurysm after Arteriovenous Fistula Ligation: A Review of the Different Surgical Approaches

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          The aim of this paper is to describe the case of a patient successfully treated for left brachial arterial aneurysm occurring 15 years after renal transplantation and consequent 8 years after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) ligation. We describe our experience and our surgical approach. A 45-year-old man presented to our attention for a large pulsatile formation on the volatile face of the left forearm, which he reported to have enlarged in the last year. He had a history of chronic renal impairment in 2000, then AVF for dialysis was realized, and he was finally addressed to kidney transplantation in 2004. In 2011 the AVF was ligated. We observed absence of radial pulse and direct flow on the ulnar artery; a large pulsatile formation was evident along the course of the left brachial artery, associated with forearm venous dilatation. Doppler ultrasound showed fusiform aneurysm of the brachial artery with 3.5 cm diameter and longitudinal extension of 5 cm up to the brachial bifurcation. We removed the brachial aneurysm, with a venous bypass on the ulnar artery. The patient was discharged in good general condition on the second postoperative day. At 1- and 6-month follow-up he had complete recovery with graft patency, without any neurological impairment and with a good esthetic result. An open surgical repair with great saphenous vein interposition seems to be the best choice in terms of patency and perioperative morbidity.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Management of true aneurysms distal to the axillary artery.

          To delineate management strategies and outcomes for true aneurysms involving arteries of the upper extremity distal to the axillary artery. The management of these rare lesions has not been well established in the literature. Retrospective chart review was performed at tertiary referral centers. All patients who received the diagnosis of true upper extremity aneurysms distal to the axillary artery between 1975 and 1995 were included in the review. Nineteen patients were found; seven were excluded because no confirmatory diagnostic imaging study or operative exploration was performed. This represents the largest reported series of true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. Twelve patients (9 men or boys) had 12 confirmed true aneurysms of the brachial or more distal arteries. The average diameters were as follows: brachial artery 4.6 cm, radial artery 2.0 cm, ulnar artery 1.4 cm, and digital artery 0.8 cm. The mean age was 51 years (range, 10 to 86 years). The most common presentation was the presence of a mass. This occurred among eight patients (67%). Four patients (33%) reported pain or paresthesia. One patient (8%) had cold intolerance only. Three patients (25%) had thromboembolic complications. Complications did not consistently correlate with size or presence of intramural thrombus. Three aneurysms (25%) were initially managed nonoperatively and followed for a mean period of 71 months. One of these required operative repair after 5 months because of progressive pain. Ten patients (83%) were treated surgically as follows: five underwent ligation and excision only, and five underwent excision and revascularization. Morbidity was minimal, and there were no perioperative deaths. True arterial aneurysms of the upper extremity distal to the axillary artery are rare and most commonly caused by blunt trauma. Fifty-eight percent of these lesions present with symptoms or complications. Thirty-three percent of asymptomatic lesions later become symptomatic. These factors combined with the minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that operative repair should be routinely performed for these aneurysms. Revascularization can be performed selectively.
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            The effect of flow changes on the arterial system proximal to an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.

            Arterial remodeling in response to flow changes is controlled by the endothelium, sensing wall shear stress (SS) changes. The present study focuses on the remodeling capacities of the brachial (BA) and radial artery (RA) of 16 renal failure patients after arteriovenous fistula creation. Pre- and postoperatively at predetermined time-points, diameter, wall thickness and peak and mean SS were assessed. After arteriovenous fistula creation, acute increases in BA SS (p = 0.018) and lumen diameter (p = 0.028) were observed. The diameter further increased in the next year (p = 0.023), whereas BA SS remained unchanged. RA SS and diameter increased acutely (p = 0.005) and remained unaltered after 1 y. RA wall thickness tended to decrease acutely (p = 0.059) and increased steadily during 1 y (p = 0.008). BA and RA diameter acutely increased after an acute SS rise and remained augmented after 1 y. Also, the RA vessel wall thickness enlarged, indicating structural remodeling. After 1 y, however, these changes did not result in SS restoration.
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              Brachial artery dilatation after arteriovenous fistulae in patients after renal transplantation: a 10-year follow-up with ultrasound scan.

              Dilatation of the artery proximal to arteriovenous fistula (AF) is not well known but is a potential serious complication in patients for renal transplant.

                Author and article information

                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                May – August 2020
                27 May 2020
                : 10
                : 2
                : 57-64
                Department of Vascular Surgery, San Salvatore Hospital, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy
                Author notes
                *Alessia Salerno, Department of Vascular Surgery, San Salvatore Hospital, University of L’Aquila, Via L. Natali, IT–67100 L’Aquila (Italy),
                507427 PMC7315194 Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2020;10:57–64
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Case Report


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