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      Prevalence of osteoporosis and related lifestyle and metabolic factors of postmenopausal women and elderly men : A cross-sectional study in Gansu province, Northwestern of China

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to investigate the osteoporosis prevalence and the risks of postmenopausal women and elderly men in Gansu province.

          This cross-sectional study involved 3359 postmenopausal women and 3205 elderly males who were randomly selected from 7 areas in Gansu province. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm 2) was measured at the distal one-third radius of the nonstressed forearm using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA: Osteometer MediTech). Factors related to osteoporosis were analyzed.

          The prevalence of osteoporosis in the entire study population was 9.65% for postmenopausal women and 8.08% for elderly males by WHO criteria, while the rate of osteopenia were 27.09% for postmenopausal women and 26.68% for elderly males. Risk of osteoporosis was significantly associated with age, menopause age, duration of menopause, body mass index (BMI), educational level, and alcohol consumption in postmenopausal women. In elderly men, age, BMI, current smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and sun exposure were associated with osteoporosis. The bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (β-CTX) were inversely correlated with BMD in both genders; serum P and 25(OH)D found no significant correlation with BMD. Serum Ca showed a positive effect on BMD in elderly men only.

          The osteoporosis prevalence of postmenopausal women and the men aged over 60 years in Gansu province is presented. Risk of osteoporosis was significantly associated with age, menopause age, year since menopause, BMI, and educational level in postmenopausal women. In elderly men, age, BMI, and current smoking were associated with osteoporosis. This study also found that higher OC and β-CTX level were associated with lower BMD. Poor 25(OH)D, Ca, P status were not associated with an increased risk of low BMD.

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          Most cited references 40

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          An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures.

           O. Johnell,  J Kanis (2006)
          The aim of this study was to quantify the global burden of osteoporotic fracture worldwide. The incidence of hip fractures was identified by systematic review and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was imputed from the incidence of hip fractures in different regions of the world. Excess mortality and disability weights used age- and sex-specific data from Sweden to calculate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost due to osteoporotic fracture. In the year 2000 there were an estimated 9.0 million osteoporotic fractures of which 1.6 million were at the hip, 1.7 million at the forearm and 1.4 million were clinical vertebral fractures. The greatest number of osteoporotic fractures occurred in Europe (34.8%). The total DALYs lost was 5.8 million of which 51% were accounted for by fractures that occurred in Europe and the Americas. World-wide, osteoporotic fractures accounted for 0.83% of the global burden of non-communicable disease and was 1.75% of the global burden in Europe. In Europe, osteoporotic fractures accounted for more DALYs lost than common cancers with the exception of lung cancer. For chronic musculo-skeletal disorders the DALYs lost in Europe due to osteoporosis (2.0 million) were less than for osteoarthrosis (3.1 million) but greater than for rheumatoid arthritis (1.0 million). We conclude that osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developed countries.
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            The recent prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the femoral neck or lumbar spine.

            The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the noninstitutionalized population aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were more than 99 million adults aged 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010, 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low bone mass. We estimated that 7.7 million non-Hispanic white, 0.5 million non-Hispanic black, and 0.6 million Mexican American adults had osteoporosis, and another 33.8, 2.9, and 2.0 million had low bone mass, respectively. When combined, osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine affected an estimated 53.6 million older US adults in 2010. Although most of the individuals with osteoporosis or low bone mass were non-Hispanic white women, a substantial number of men and women from other racial/ethnic groups also had osteoporotic BMD or low bone mass. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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              Estimating prevalence of osteoporosis: examples from industrialized countries.

              In nine industrialized countries in North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia, country-specific osteoporosis prevalence (estimated from published data) at the total hip or hip/spine ranged from 9 to 38 % for women and 1 to 8 % for men. In these countries, osteoporosis affects up to 49 million individuals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                October 2017
                27 October 2017
                : 96
                : 43
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Endocrinology
                [b ]Department of General Surgery
                [c ]Department of Clinical Laboratory Center
                [d ]Department of Information Center, The Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, People's Republic of China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Tiankang Guo, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China (e-mail: tlm6666@ 123456sina.com ).
                MD-D-17-02620 08294
                10.1097/MD.0000000000008294
                5671832
                29068999
                Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives License 4.0, which allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to the author. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0

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                Research Article
                Observational Study
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                risk factor, biochemical markers, osteoporosis, prevalence

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