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      Modulation of Global Transcriptional Regulatory Networks as a Strategy for Increasing Kanamycin Resistance of the Translational Elongation Factor-G Mutants in Escherichia coli

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          Abstract

          Evolve and resequence experiments have provided us a tool to understand bacterial adaptation to antibiotics. In our previous work, we used short-term evolution to isolate mutants resistant to the ribosome targeting antibiotic kanamycin, and reported that Escherichia coli develops low cost resistance to kanamycin via different point mutations in the translation Elongation Factor-G (EF-G). Furthermore, we had shown that the resistance of EF-G mutants could be increased by second site mutations in the genes rpoD/ cpxA/ topA/ cyaA. Mutations in three of these genes had been discovered in earlier screens for aminoglycoside resistance. In this work, we expand our understanding of these second site mutations, the goal being to understand how these mutations affect the activities of the mutated gene products to confer resistance. We show that the mutation in cpxA most likely results in an active Cpx stress response. Further evolution of an EF-G mutant in a higher concentration of kanamycin than what was used in our previous experiments identified the cpxA locus as a primary target for a significant increase in resistance. The mutation in cyaA results in a loss of catalytic activity and probably results in resistance via altered CRP function. Despite a reduction in cAMP levels, the CyaA N600Y mutant has a transcriptome indicative of increased CRP activity, pointing to an unknown role for CyaA and / or cAMP in gene expression. From the transcriptomes of double and single mutants, we describe the epistasis between the mutation in EF-G and these second site mutations. We show that the large scale transcriptomic changes in the topoisomerase I (FusA A608E-TopA S180L) mutant likely result from increased negative supercoiling in the cell. Finally, genes with known roles in aminoglycoside resistance were present among the misregulated genes in the mutants.

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          A common mechanism of cellular death induced by bactericidal antibiotics.

          Antibiotic mode-of-action classification is based upon drug-target interaction and whether the resultant inhibition of cellular function is lethal to bacteria. Here we show that the three major classes of bactericidal antibiotics, regardless of drug-target interaction, stimulate the production of highly deleterious hydroxyl radicals in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, which ultimately contribute to cell death. We also show, in contrast, that bacteriostatic drugs do not produce hydroxyl radicals. We demonstrate that the mechanism of hydroxyl radical formation induced by bactericidal antibiotics is the end product of an oxidative damage cellular death pathway involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a transient depletion of NADH, destabilization of iron-sulfur clusters, and stimulation of the Fenton reaction. Our results suggest that all three major classes of bactericidal drugs can be potentiated by targeting bacterial systems that remediate hydroxyl radical damage, including proteins involved in triggering the DNA damage response, e.g., RecA.
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            The biological cost of antibiotic resistance.

            The frequency and rates of ascent and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations are anticipated to be directly related to the volume of antibiotic use and inversely related to the cost that resistance imposes on the fitness of bacteria. The data available from recent laboratory studies suggest that most, but not all, resistance-determining mutations and accessory elements engender some fitness cost, but those costs are likely to be ameliorated by subsequent evolution.
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              RegulonDB version 9.0: high-level integration of gene regulation, coexpression, motif clustering and beyond

              RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx) is one of the most useful and important resources on bacterial gene regulation,as it integrates the scattered scientific knowledge of the best-characterized organism, Escherichia coli K-12, in a database that organizes large amounts of data. Its electronic format enables researchers to compare their results with the legacy of previous knowledge and supports bioinformatics tools and model building. Here, we summarize our progress with RegulonDB since our last Nucleic Acids Research publication describing RegulonDB, in 2013. In addition to maintaining curation up-to-date, we report a collection of 232 interactions with small RNAs affecting 192 genes, and the complete repertoire of 189 Elementary Genetic Sensory-Response units (GENSOR units), integrating the signal, regulatory interactions, and metabolic pathways they govern. These additions represent major progress to a higher level of understanding of regulated processes. We have updated the computationally predicted transcription factors, which total 304 (184 with experimental evidence and 120 from computational predictions); we updated our position-weight matrices and have included tools for clustering them in evolutionary families. We describe our semiautomatic strategy to accelerate curation, including datasets from high-throughput experiments, a novel coexpression distance to search for ‘neighborhood’ genes to known operons and regulons, and computational developments.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                G3 (Bethesda)
                Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                2160-1836
                18 October 2017
                December 2017
                : 7
                : 12
                : 3955-3966
                Affiliations
                [* ]National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bangalore, Karnataka 560065, India
                []The Institute of Trans-Disciplinary Health Sciences and Technology, Trans-Disciplinary University, Bangalore, Karnataka 560064, India
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding authors: National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bellary Rd., Bangalore, Karnataka 560065, India. E-mail: aswin@ 123456ncbs.res.in ; and Department of Microbiology, Moyne Institute of Preventive Medicine, School of Genetics and Microbiology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. E-mail: mogrea@ 123456tcd.ie
                Article
                GGG_300284
                10.1534/g3.117.300284
                5714492
                29046437
                Copyright © 2017 Mogre et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 93, Pages: 12
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