Objective To investigate the factors affecting facial nerve function after acoustic neuroma surgery and to provide theoretical reference for clinicians to preserve facial nerve function better after surgery. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the correlation between postoperative facial nerve function and surgical approach, age, sex, tumor size and adhesion degree of facial nerve in 152 patients with acoustic neuroma. Results In the choice of surgical approach, there was no significant difference in the anatomy of the complete facial nerve in labyrinth path, retrosigmoid sinus path, and middle cranial fossa path. There was no statistically significant difference between the middle cranial fossa path and the retrosigmoid sinus path in facial nerve function preservation 7 days after surgery. The difference between middle cranial fossa path and labyrinthine path was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There were statistically significant differences between labyrinth path and retrosigmoid sinus path (P < 0.05). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the operative approach and the degree of adhesion between tumor and facial nerve were the risk factors affecting functional preservation of facial nerve 7 days after surgery. Age and the degree of adhesion between tumor and facial nerve were the risk factors for functional preservation of facial nerve 1 year after operation. Conclusion The facial nerve function injury in patients with acoustic neuroma may be related to the choice of surgical approach, the adhesion degree of tumor and facial nerve, and their age. Clinicians need to comprehensively evaluate the risk factors before surgery, so as to achieve individualized treatment to protect the integrity of postoperative facial nerve function of patients.