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      Integrated anatomical and physiological mapping of striatal afferent projections

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          Most cited references 39

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          Frontal cortex and reward-guided learning and decision-making.

          Reward-guided decision-making and learning depends on distributed neural circuits with many components. Here we focus on recent evidence that suggests four frontal lobe regions make distinct contributions to reward-guided learning and decision-making: the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and adjacent medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex. We attempt to identify common themes in experiments with human participants and with animal models, which suggest roles that the areas play in learning about reward associations, selecting reward goals, choosing actions to obtain reward, and monitoring the potential value of switching to alternative courses of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Monosynaptic restriction of transsynaptic tracing from single, genetically targeted neurons.

            There has never been a wholesale way of identifying neurons that are monosynaptically connected either to some other cell group or, especially, to a single cell. The best available tools, transsynaptic tracers, are unable to distinguish weak direct connections from strong indirect ones. Furthermore, no tracer has proven potent enough to label any connected neurons whatsoever when starting from a single cell. Here we present a transsynaptic tracer that crosses only one synaptic step, unambiguously identifying cells directly presynaptic to the starting population. Based on rabies virus, it is genetically targetable, allows high-level expression of any gene of interest in the synaptically coupled neurons, and robustly labels connections made to single cells. This technology should enable a far more detailed understanding of neural connectivity than has previously been possible.
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              Putting a spin on the dorsal-ventral divide of the striatum.

              Since its conception three decades ago, the idea that the striatum consists of a dorsal sensorimotor part and a ventral portion processing limbic information has sparked a quest for functional correlates and anatomical characteristics of the striatal divisions. But this classic dorsal-ventral distinction might not offer the best view of striatal function. Anatomy and neurophysiology show that the two striatal areas have the same basic structure and that sharp boundaries are absent. Behaviorally, a distinction between dorsolateral and ventromedial seems most valid, in accordance with a mediolateral functional zonation imposed on the striatum by its excitatory cortical, thalamic and amygdaloid inputs. Therefore, this review presents a synthesis between the dorsal-ventral distinction and the more mediolateral-oriented functional striatal gradient.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neuroscience; Perelman School of Medicine; University of Pennsylvania; Clinical Research Building, Room 226 Philadelphia PA 19104 USA
                [2 ]Neuroscience Graduate Group; Perelman School of Medicine; University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia PA USA
                [3 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Stanford University Medical School; Stanford CA USA
                Journal
                European Journal of Neuroscience
                Eur J Neurosci
                Wiley
                0953816X
                February 22 2018
                10.1111/ejn.13829
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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