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      Genetic structure of recently fragmented suburban populations of European stag beetle

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          Abstract

          Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanization can negatively affect metapopulation persistence when gene flow among populations is reduced and population sizes decrease. Inference of patterns and processes of population connectivity derived from spatial genetic analysis has proven invaluable for conservation and management. However, a more complete account of population dynamics may be obtained by combining spatial and temporal sampling. We, therefore, performed a genetic study on European stag beetle ( Lucanus cervus L.) populations in a suburban context using samples collected in three locations and during the period 2002–2016. The sampling area has seen recent landscape changes which resulted in population declines. Through the use of a suite of F ST, clustering analysis, individual assignment, and relatedness analysis, we assessed fine scale spatiotemporal genetic variation within and among habitat patches using 283 individuals successfully genotyped at 17 microsatellites. Our findings suggested the three locations to hold demographically independent populations, at least over time scales of relevance to conservation, though with higher levels of gene flow in the past. Contrary to expectation from tagging studies, dispersal appeared to be mainly female‐biased. Although the life cycle of stag beetle suggests its generations to be discrete, no clear temporal structure was identified, which could be attributed to the varying duration of larval development. Since population bottlenecks were detected and estimates of effective number of breeders were low, conservation actions are eminent which should include the establishment of suitable dead wood for oviposition on both local and regional scales to increase (re)colonization success and connectivity among current populations.

          Abstract

          In this genetic study of suburban European stag beetle populations, we investigated the influence of recent habitat fragmentation using spatial and temporal samples. The results suggest the populations to be currently demographically independent, with dispersal being mainly female‐biased. Since recent bottlenecks were detected and estimates of effective number of breeders were low, conservation actions are eminent.

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          Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing

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            adegenet: a R package for the multivariate analysis of genetic markers.

            The package adegenet for the R software is dedicated to the multivariate analysis of genetic markers. It extends the ade4 package of multivariate methods by implementing formal classes and functions to manipulate and analyse genetic markers. Data can be imported from common population genetics software and exported to other software and R packages. adegenet also implements standard population genetics tools along with more original approaches for spatial genetics and hybridization. Stable version is available from CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/mirrors.html. Development version is available from adegenet website: http://adegenet.r-forge.r-project.org/. Both versions can be installed directly from R. adegenet is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence (v.2).
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              genepop'007: a complete re-implementation of the genepop software for Windows and Linux.

              This note summarizes developments of the genepop software since its first description in 1995, and in particular those new to version 4.0: an extended input format, several estimators of neighbourhood size under isolation by distance, new estimators and confidence intervals for null allele frequency, and less important extensions to previous options. genepop now runs under Linux as well as under Windows, and can be entirely controlled by batch calls. © 2007 The Author.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karen.cox@inbo.be
                Journal
                Ecol Evol
                Ecol Evol
                10.1002/(ISSN)2045-7758
                ECE3
                Ecology and Evolution
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2045-7758
                02 October 2020
                November 2020
                : 10
                : 21 ( doiID: 10.1002/ece3.v10.21 )
                : 12290-12306
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) Geraardsbergen Belgium
                [ 2 ] Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) Aberystwyth University Aberystwyth UK
                [ 3 ] Retired from the Natural and Agricultural Environment Studies Department (DEMNA) Public Service of Wallonia Gembloux Belgium
                [ 4 ] Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) Brussels Belgium
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Karen Cox, Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Gaverstraat 4, 9500 Geraardsbergen, Belgium.

                Email: karen.cox@ 123456inbo.be

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8621-3773
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7351-5553
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8773-7280
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7484-1342
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5723-5976
                Article
                ECE36858
                10.1002/ece3.6858
                7663065
                bc33a2f8-7942-4b66-ac34-e2eedffd82e0
                © 2020 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 28 May 2020
                : 04 September 2020
                : 09 September 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 7, Pages: 17, Words: 13570
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                November 2020
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.9.4 mode:remove_FC converted:13.11.2020

                Evolutionary Biology
                bottleneck,connectivity,land use change,lucanus cervus,sex‐biased dispersal,suburban populations

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