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      The incidence of erectile dysfunction after pelvic fracture urethral injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) is associated with a high risk of erectile dysfunction (ED). The effect of the type of posterior urethral disruption repair on erectile function has not been clearly established. We systematically reviewed and conducted a meta-analysis of the proportion of patients with ED at (i) baseline after pelvic fracture with PFUI, (ii) after immediate primary realignment, and (iii) after delayed urethroplasty.

          Methods

          Using search terms for primary realignment or urethroplasty and urethral disruption, we systematically reviewed PubMed and EMBASE. A meta-analysis of the proportion of patients with ED was conducted assuming a random-effects model.

          Results

          Of 734 articles found, 24 met the inclusion criteria. The estimate of the proportion (95% confidence interval) of patients with ED after (i) PFUI was 34 (25–45)%, after (ii) immediate primary realignment was 16 (8–26)%, and after (iii) delayed urethroplasty was an additional 3 (2–5)% more than the 34% after pelvic fracture in this cohort.

          Conclusions

          After pelvic fracture, 34% of patients had ED. After primary endoscopic alignment, patients had a lower reported rate of ED (16%). Delayed urethroplasty conferred an additional 3% risk above the 34% associated with PFUI alone, with 37% of patients having de novo ED. The difference in de novo ED after primary endoscopic alignment vs. delayed urethroplasty is probably due to reporting differences in ED and/or patients with less severe injury undergoing primary realignment.

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          Most cited references 42

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          The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction.

          To develop a brief, reliable, self-administered measure of erectile function that is cross-culturally valid and psychometrically sound, with the sensitivity and specificity for detecting treatment-related changes in patients with erectile dysfunction. Relevant domains of sexual function across various cultures were identified via a literature search of existing questionnaires and interviews of male patients with erectile dysfunction and of their partners. An initial questionnaire was administered to patients with erectile dysfunction, with results reviewed by an international panel of experts. Following linguistic validation in 10 languages, the final 15-item questionnaire, the international index of Erectile Function (IIEF), was examined for sensitivity, specificity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest repeatability), and construct (concurrent, convergent, and discriminant) validity. A principal components analysis identified five factors (that is, erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the five domains and for the total scale (Cronbach's alpha values of 0.73 and higher and 0.91 and higher, respectively) in the populations studied. Test-retest repeatability correlation coefficients for the five domain scores were highly significant. The IIEF demonstrated adequate construct validity, and all five domains showed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment. Significant (P values = 0.0001) changes between baseline and post-treatment scores were observed across all five domains in the treatment responder cohort, but not in the treatment nonresponder cohort. The IIEF addresses the relevant domains of male sexual function (that is, erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction), is psychometrically sound, and has been linguistically validated in 10 languages. This questionnaire is readily self-administered in research or clinical settings. The IIEF demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity for detecting treatment-related changes in patients with erectile dysfunction.
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            Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement

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              Pelvic fracture urethral injuries: the unresolved controversy.

               M Koraitim (1999)
              The unresolved controversies about pelvic fracture urethral injuries and whether any conclusions can be reached to develop a treatment plan for this lesion are determined. All data on pelvic fracture urethral injuries in the English literature for the last 50 years were critically analyzed. Studies were eligible only if data were complete and conclusive. The risk of urethral injury is influenced by the number of broken pubic rami as well as involvement of the sacroiliac joint. Depending on the magnitude of trauma, the membranous urethra is first stretched and then partially or completely ruptured at the bulbomembranous junction. Injuries to the prostatic urethra and bladder neck occur only in children. Injury to the female urethra usually is a partial tear of the anterior wall and rarely complete disruption of the proximal or distal urethra. Diagnosis depends on urethrography in men and on a high index of suspicion and urethroscopy in women. Of the 3 conventional treatment methods primary suturing of the disrupted urethral ends has the greatest complication rates of incontinence and impotence (21 and 56%, respectively). Primary realignment has double the incidence of impotence and half that of stricture compared to suprapubic cystostomy and delayed repair (36 versus 19 and 53 versus 97%, respectively, p <0.0001). In men surgical and endoscopic procedures do not compete but rather complement each other for treatment of different injuries under different circumstances, including indwelling catheter for urethral stretch injury, endoscopic stenting or suprapubic cystostomy for partial rupture, endoscopic realignment or suprapubic cystostomy for complete rupture with a minimal distraction defect and surgical realignment if the distraction defect is wide. Associated injury to the bladder, bladder neck or rectum dictates immediate exploration for repair but does not necessarily indicate exploration of the urethral injury site. In women treatment modalities are dictated by the level of urethral injury, including immediate retropubic realignment or suturing for proximal and transvaginal urethral advancement for distal injury.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Arab J Urol
                Arab J Urol
                Arab Journal of Urology
                Elsevier
                2090-598X
                2090-5998
                16 October 2014
                March 2015
                16 October 2014
                : 13
                : 1
                : 68-74
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
                [b ]Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Ave Suite 3A20, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA. Tel.: +1 415 206 8805; fax: +1 415 206 5153. blaschkosd@ 123456urology.ucsf.edu
                Article
                S2090-598X(14)00094-1
                10.1016/j.aju.2014.09.004
                4435659
                © 2014 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Arab Association of Urology.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

                Categories
                PFUI-related Complications Review

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