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      Leuprorelin depot injection: patient considerations in the management of prostatic cancer

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          Abstract

          Hormone therapy is well established for treating patients with prostate cancer and remains the mainstay of the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced disease, this article reviews the rationale for its use, its different forms, and complications and controversies still surrounding some of its modalities. Availability of long-acting synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists revolutionized the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer, and helped to avoid the emotional and psychological effects related to surgical castration. The depot formula has gained wide acceptance from both patients and physicians. This review emphasizes the newer, long-acting formula, leuprorelin (leuprolide acetate), especially the 6-month formula, its advantage over over shorter-acting depot products, and its potential to become a standard of care for patients eligible for androgen deprivation therapy.

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          Most cited references 144

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          A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma.

          To test the hypothesis that maximal androgen blockade improves the effectiveness of the treatment of prostatic cancer, we conducted a randomized, double-blind trial in patients with disseminated, previously untreated prostate cancer (stage D2). All 603 men received leuprolide, an analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone that inhibits the release of gonadotropins, in combination with either placebo or flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that inhibits the binding of androgens to the cell nucleus. As compared with the 300 patients receiving leuprolide and placebo, the 303 patients randomly assigned to receive leuprolide and flutamide had a longer progression-free survival (16.5 vs. 13.9 months; P = 0.039) and an increase in the median length of survival (35.6 vs. 28.3 months; P = 0.035). The differences between the treatments were particularly evident for men with minimal disease and good performance status; however, further studies should be conducted in this subgroup. Symptomatic improvement was greatest during the first 12 weeks of the combined androgen blockade, when leuprolide alone often produces a painful flare in the disease. We conclude that in patients with advanced prostate cancer, treatment with leuprolide and flutamide is superior to treatment with leuprolide alone.
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            Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31.

            Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 85-31 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant androgen suppression, using goserelin, in unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Eligible patients were those with palpable primary tumor extending beyond the prostate (clinical Stage T3) or those with regional lymphatic involvement. Patients who had undergone prostatectomy were eligible if penetration through the prostatic capsule to the margin of resection and/or seminal vesicle involvement was documented histologically. Stratification was based on histologic differentiation, nodal status, acid phosphatase status, and prior prostatectomy. The patients were randomized to either RT and adjuvant goserelin (Arm I) or RT alone followed by observation and application of goserelin at relapse (Arm II). In Arm I, the drug was to be started during the last week of RT and was to be continued indefinitely or until signs of progression. Between 1987 and 1992, when the study was closed, 977 patients were entered: 488 to Arm I and 489 to Arm II. As of July 2003, the median follow-up for all patients was 7.6 years and for living patients was 11 years. At 10 years, the absolute survival rate was significantly greater for the adjuvant arm than for the control arm: 49% vs. 39%, respectively (p = 0.002). The 10-year local failure rate for the adjuvant arm was 23% vs. 38% for the control arm (p <0.0001). The corresponding 10-year rates for the incidence of distant metastases and disease-specific mortality was 24% vs. 39% (p <0.001) and 16% vs. 22% (p = 0.0052), respectively, both in favor of the adjuvant arm. In a population of patients with unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate, androgen suppression applied as an adjuvant after definitive RT was associated not only with a reduction in disease progression but in a statistically significant improvement in absolute survival. The improvement in survival appeared preferentially in patients with a Gleason score of 7-10.
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              Metabolic syndrome in men with prostate cancer undergoing long-term androgen-deprivation therapy.

              Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men. Men with recurrent or metastatic PCa are treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), resulting in profound hypogonadism. Because male hypogonadism is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and men with PCa have high cardiovascular mortality, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men undergoing long-term ADT. This was a cross-sectional study. We evaluated 58 men, including 20 with PCa undergoing ADT for at least 12 months (ADT group), 18 age-matched men with nonmetastatic PCa who had received local treatment and were recently found to have an increasing prostate-specific antigen (non-ADT group), and 20 age-matched controls (control group). Men in the non-ADT and control groups were eugonadal. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Mean age was similar among the groups. Men on ADT had significantly higher body mass index and lower total and free testosterone levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in the ADT group compared with the non-ADT (P < .01) and control (P = .03) groups. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, men on ADT had a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia. Androgen-deprived men also had elevated triglycerides compared with controls (P = .02). The prevalence of hypertension and low high-density lipoprotein levels were similar. These data suggest that metabolic syndrome was present in more than 50% of the men undergoing long-term ADT, predisposing them to higher cardiovascular risk. Abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia were responsible for this higher prevalence. We recommend prospective studies to further delineate this association.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                April 2008
                April 2008
                : 4
                : 2
                : 513-526
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Urologic Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center Aurora, CO, USA
                [2 ]Currently, Amiri Hospital Kuwait University, Urology Section Kuwait City
                Author notes
                Correspondence: E David Crawford Urologic Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, PO Box 6510, Aurora, CO 80045, USA Tel +1 720 848 0170 Fax +1 720 848 0180 Email david.crawford@ 123456uchsc.edu
                Article
                2504071
                18728847
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                androgen deprivation therapy (adt), prostate cancer, leuprorelin

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