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      Bacterial siderophores in community and host interactions

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      Nature Reviews Microbiology
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Iron is an essential trace element for most organisms. A common way for bacteria to acquire this nutrient is through the secretion of siderophores, which are secondary metabolites that scavenge iron from environmental stocks and deliver it to cells via specific receptors. While there has been tremendous interest in understanding the molecular basis of siderophore synthesis, uptake and regulation, questions about the ecological and evolutionary consequences of siderophore secretion have only recently received increasing attention. In this Review, we outline how eco-evolutionary questions can complement the mechanistic perspective and help to obtain a more integrated view of siderophores. In particular, we explain how secreted diffusible siderophores can affect other community members, leading to cooperative, exploitative and competitive interactions between individuals. These social interactions in turn can spur co-evolutionary arms races between strains and species, lead to ecological dependencies between them and potentially contribute to the formation of stable communities. In brief, this Review shows that siderophores are much more than just iron carriers: they are important mediators of interactions between members of microbial assemblies and the eukaryotic hosts they inhabit.

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          Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes.

          Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.
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            On aims and methods of Ethology

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              Bacterial iron homeostasis.

              Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many cases, this involves the secretion and internalisation of extracellular ferric chelators called siderophores. Ferrous iron can also be directly imported by the G protein-like transporter, FeoB. For pathogens, host-iron complexes (transferrin, lactoferrin, haem, haemoglobin) are directly used as iron sources. Bacterial iron storage proteins (ferritin, bacterioferritin) provide intracellular iron reserves for use when external supplies are restricted, and iron detoxification proteins (Dps) are employed to protect the chromosome from iron-induced free radical damage. There is evidence that bacteria control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins during iron-restricted growth. And finally, the expression of the iron homeostatic machinery is subject to iron-dependent global control ensuring that iron acquisition, storage and consumption are geared to iron availability and that intracellular levels of free iron do not reach toxic levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Microbiology
                Nat Rev Microbiol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1740-1526
                1740-1534
                November 20 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41579-019-0284-4
                7116523
                31748738
                bc4a1cdd-56f9-4628-a70c-944524a1d5f9
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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