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      Non-classical protein secretion in bacteria

      1 , 1 , 1 ,   , 1

      BMC Microbiology

      BioMed Central

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          We present an overview of bacterial non-classical secretion and a prediction method for identification of proteins following signal peptide independent secretion pathways. We have compiled a list of proteins found extracellularly despite the absence of a signal peptide. Some of these proteins also have known roles in the cytoplasm, which means they could be so-called "moon-lightning" proteins having more than one function.


          A thorough literature search was conducted to compile a list of currently known bacterial non-classically secreted proteins. Pattern finding methods were applied to the sequences in order to identify putative signal sequences or motifs responsible for their secretion. We have found no signal or motif characteristic to any majority of the proteins in the compiled list of non-classically secreted proteins, and conclude that these proteins, indeed, seem to be secreted in a novel fashion. However, we also show that the apparently non-classically secreted proteins are still distinguished from cellular proteins by properties such as amino acid composition, secondary structure and disordered regions. Specifically, prediction of disorder reveals that bacterial secretory proteins are more structurally disordered than their cytoplasmic counterparts. Finally, artificial neural networks were used to construct protein feature based methods for identification of non-classically secreted proteins in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.


          We present a publicly available prediction method capable of discriminating between this group of proteins and other proteins, thus allowing for the identification of novel non-classically secreted proteins. We suggest candidates for non-classically secreted proteins in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The prediction method is available online.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Protein disorder prediction: implications for structural proteomics.

          A great challenge in the proteomics and structural genomics era is to predict protein structure and function, including identification of those proteins that are partially or wholly unstructured. Disordered regions in proteins often contain short linear peptide motifs (e.g., SH3 ligands and targeting signals) that are important for protein function. We present here DisEMBL, a computational tool for prediction of disordered/unstructured regions within a protein sequence. As no clear definition of disorder exists, we have developed parameters based on several alternative definitions and introduced a new one based on the concept of "hot loops," i.e., coils with high temperature factors. Avoiding potentially disordered segments in protein expression constructs can increase expression, foldability, and stability of the expressed protein. DisEMBL is thus useful for target selection and the design of constructs as needed for many biochemical studies, particularly structural biology and structural genomics projects. The tool is freely available via a web interface (http://dis.embl.de) and can be downloaded for use in large-scale studies.
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            PSORT: a program for detecting sorting signals in proteins and predicting their subcellular localization.

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              PSORTb v.2.0: expanded prediction of bacterial protein subcellular localization and insights gained from comparative proteome analysis.

              PSORTb v.1.1 is the most precise bacterial localization prediction tool available. However, the program's predictive coverage and recall are low and the method is only applicable to Gram-negative bacteria. The goals of the present work are as follows: increase PSORTb's coverage while maintaining the existing precision level, expand it to include Gram-positive bacteria and then carry out a comparative analysis of localization. An expanded database of proteins of known localization and new modules using frequent subsequence-based support vector machines was introduced into PSORTb v.2.0. The program attains a precision of 96% for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and predictive coverage comparable to other tools for whole proteome analysis. We show that the proportion of proteins at each localization is remarkably consistent across species, even in species with varying proteome size. Web-based version: http://www.psort.org/psortb. Standalone version: Available through the website under GNU General Public License. psort-mail@sfu.ca, brinkman@sfu.ca http://www.psort.org/psortb/supplementaryinfo.html.

                Author and article information

                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central (London )
                7 October 2005
                : 5
                : 58
                [1 ]Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 208, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
                Copyright © 2005 Bendtsen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Microbiology & Virology


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