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      Effect of Filgotinib vs Placebo on Clinical Response in Patients With Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory to Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Therapy : The FINCH 2 Randomized Clinical Trial

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          Abstract

          Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapy need treatment options.

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          Most cited references7

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          JAK–STAT Signaling as a Target for Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases: Current and Future Prospects

          The Janus kinase/signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) signaling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Many cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases use JAKs and STATs to transduce intracellular signals. Mutations in JAK and STAT genes cause a number of immunodeficiency syndromes, and polymorphisms in these genes are associated with autoimmune diseases. The success of small-molecule JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) in the treatment of rheumatologic disease demonstrates that intracellular signaling pathways can be targeted therapeutically to treat autoimmunity. Tofacitinib, the first rheumatologic Jakinib, is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for rheumatoid arthritis and is currently under investigation for other autoimmune diseases. Many other Jakinibs are in preclinical development or in various phases of clinical trials. This review describes the JAK–STAT pathway, outlines its role in autoimmunity, and explains the rationale/pre-clinical evidence for targeting JAK–STAT signaling. The safety and clinical efficacy of the Jakinibs are reviewed, starting with the FDA-approved Jakinib tofacitinib, and continuing on to next-generation Jakinibs. Recent and ongoing studies are emphasized, with a focus on emerging indications for JAK inhibition and novel mechanisms of JAK–STAT signaling blockade.
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            Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in combination with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: a randomised phase 3 trial.

            Rheumatoid arthritis is a heterogeneous chronic disease, and no therapeutic agent has been identified which is universally and persistently effective in all patients. We investigated the effectiveness of tofacitinib (CP-690,550), a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, as a targeted immunomodulator and disease-modifying therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. We did a 6-month, double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 study at 82 centres in 13 countries, including North America, Europe, and Latin America. 399 patients aged 18 years or older with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1:1 ratio with an automated internet or telephone system to receive twice a day treatment with: tofacitinib 5 mg (n=133); tofacitinib 10 mg (n=134); or placebo (n=132), all with methotrexate. At month 3, patients given placebo advanced to either tofacitinib 5 mg twice a day (n=66) or 10 mg twice a day (n=66). Primary endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20 response rate, mean change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and rates of disease activity score (DAS)28-4(ESR) less than 2·6 (referred to as DAS28<2·6), all at month 3. The full analysis set for the primary analysis included all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one post-baseline assessment. This trial is registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00960440. At month 3, ACR20 response rates were 41·7% (55 of 132 [95% CI vs placebo 6·06-28·41]; p=0·0024) for tofacitinib 5 mg twice a day and 48·1% (64 of 133; [12·45-34·92]; p<0·0001) for tofacitinib 10 mg twice a day versus 24·4% (32 of 131) for placebo. Improvements from baseline in HAQ-DI were -0·43 ([-0·36 to -0·15]; p<0·0001) for 5 mg twice a day and -0·46 ([-0·38 to -0·17]; p<0·0001) for 10 mg twice a day tofacitinib versus -0·18 for placebo; DAS28<2·6 rates were 6·7% (eight of 119; [0-10·10]; p=0·0496) for 5 mg twice a day tofacitinib and 8·8% (11 of 125 [1·66-12·60]; p=0·0105) for 10 mg twice a day tofacitinib versus 1·7% (two of 120) for placebo. Safety was consistent with phase 2 and 3 studies. The most common adverse events in months 0-3 were diarrhoea (13 of 267; 4·9%), nasopharyngitis (11 of 267; 4·1%), headache (11 of 267; 4·1%), and urinary tract infection (eight of 267; 3·0%) across tofacitinib groups, and nausea (nine of 132; 6·8%) in the placebo group. In this treatment-refractory population, tofacitinib with methotrexate had rapid and clinically meaningful improvements in signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and physical function over 6 months with manageable safety. Tofacitinib could provide an effective treatment option in patients with an inadequate response to TNFi. Pfizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Filgotinib (GLPG0634/GS-6034), an oral JAK1 selective inhibitor, is effective in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and insufficient response to MTX: results from a randomised, dose-finding study (DARWIN 1).

              To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different doses and regimens of filgotinib, an oral Janus kinase 1 inhibitor, as add-on treatment to methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inadequate response to MTX.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JAMA
                JAMA
                American Medical Association (AMA)
                0098-7484
                July 23 2019
                July 23 2019
                : 322
                : 4
                : 315
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California
                [2 ]Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla
                [3 ]Department of Rheumatology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France
                [4 ]Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, California
                [5 ]Galapagos NV, Mechelen, Belgium
                [6 ]Department of Rheumatology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
                [7 ]Northumbria Healthcare, North Shields, United Kingdom
                [8 ]Division of Rheumatology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                10.1001/jama.2019.9055
                6652745
                31334793
                bc58af0b-8cc7-4e59-bb96-f164810454b9
                © 2019
                History

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