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      Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

      Journal of Adolescence

      Social Support, Adolescent, Social Adjustment, Sex Factors, Self Concept, Questionnaires, psychology, Parenting, Parent-Child Relations, Models, Psychological, Male, Longitudinal Studies, Internal-External Control, Humans, Female, Emotions, diagnosis, Depressive Disorder, Coercion, Authoritarianism, Anxiety Disorders

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          Abstract

          This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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          Journal
          10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.05.002
          23849664

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