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Risk factors of hepatitis B virus surface antigen carriage and serological profile of HBsAg carriers in Lomé Togo, 2016

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      Abstract

      Background

      In Togo, the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among young people aged 15–24 years was estimated at 16.4% in 2010; however, risk factors for HBsAg carriage are poorly documented. We sought to identify risk factors for HBsAg carriage and the serological profile of HBsAg carriers in Lomé (capital city of Togo).

      Method

      We conducted a case control study from October 2016 to March 2017 in Lomé. Cases and controls were randomly selected from a database of Institut National d’Hygiène (INH) of Lomé during a free screening campaign for hepatitis B. We calculated means, frequencies, proportions, odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) and performed logistic regression.

      Results

      We included 83 confirmed cases and 249 controls. The median age was 31 years among cases and 30 years among the controls. The sex ratios (M/F) were 11/6 among cases and 4/3 for the controls. The independent risk factors for HBsAg carriage were the awareness of hepatitis B serological status (OR = 3.56, 95% CI [1.80–7.04]) and Kabyè-tem ethnic group (OR = 3.56, 95% CI [1.98–6.39]). Among HBsAg carriers, 13.3% were at the viral replication stage (all of whom were between 30 and 45 years of age) and 1.2% were at the acute stage of the disease. The prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and C was 4.80%. All co-infections were in women aged 24–28 years.

      Conclusion

      The Kabyè-tem ethnic group is at risk of HBsAg carriage in Lomé. Of note, most HBsAg carriers in this ethnic group are aware of their HBsAg serological status. Furthermore, the prevalence of Hepatitis among adults of reproductive age is high and is cause for concern. We therefore recommend screening and vaccination campaigns at subsidized prices among people aged 30 years and older.

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      Most cited references 14

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      Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

      Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex. We attempted to identify all available data on causes of death for 187 countries from 1980 to 2010 from vital registration, verbal autopsy, mortality surveillance, censuses, surveys, hospitals, police records, and mortuaries. We assessed data quality for completeness, diagnostic accuracy, missing data, stochastic variations, and probable causes of death. We applied six different modelling strategies to estimate cause-specific mortality trends depending on the strength of the data. For 133 causes and three special aggregates we used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach, which uses four families of statistical models testing a large set of different models using different permutations of covariates. Model ensembles were developed from these component models. We assessed model performance with rigorous out-of-sample testing of prediction error and the validity of 95% UIs. For 13 causes with low observed numbers of deaths, we developed negative binomial models with plausible covariates. For 27 causes for which death is rare, we modelled the higher level cause in the cause hierarchy of the GBD 2010 and then allocated deaths across component causes proportionately, estimated from all available data in the database. For selected causes (African trypanosomiasis, congenital syphilis, whooping cough, measles, typhoid and parathyroid, leishmaniasis, acute hepatitis E, and HIV/AIDS), we used natural history models based on information on incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality. We separately estimated cause fractions by aetiology for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and meningitis, as well as disaggregations by subcause for chronic kidney disease, maternal disorders, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. For deaths due to collective violence and natural disasters, we used mortality shock regressions. For every cause, we estimated 95% UIs that captured both parameter estimation uncertainty and uncertainty due to model specification where CODEm was used. We constrained cause-specific fractions within every age-sex group to sum to total mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. In 2010, there were 52·8 million deaths globally. At the most aggregate level, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes were 24·9% of deaths worldwide in 2010, down from 15·9 million (34·1%) of 46·5 million in 1990. This decrease was largely due to decreases in mortality from diarrhoeal disease (from 2·5 to 1·4 million), lower respiratory infections (from 3·4 to 2·8 million), neonatal disorders (from 3·1 to 2·2 million), measles (from 0·63 to 0·13 million), and tetanus (from 0·27 to 0·06 million). Deaths from HIV/AIDS increased from 0·30 million in 1990 to 1·5 million in 2010, reaching a peak of 1·7 million in 2006. Malaria mortality also rose by an estimated 19·9% since 1990 to 1·17 million deaths in 2010. Tuberculosis killed 1·2 million people in 2010. Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by just under 8 million between 1990 and 2010, accounting for two of every three deaths (34·5 million) worldwide by 2010. 8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago; of these, 1·5 million (19%) were from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed 12·9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990; 1·3 million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990. The fraction of global deaths due to injuries (5·1 million deaths) was marginally higher in 2010 (9·6%) compared with two decades earlier (8·8%). This was driven by a 46% rise in deaths worldwide due to road traffic accidents (1·3 million in 2010) and a rise in deaths from falls. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of death in 2010. Ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, stroke, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) in 2010, similar to what was estimated for 1990, except for HIV/AIDS and preterm birth complications. YLLs from lower respiratory infections and diarrhoea decreased by 45-54% since 1990; ischaemic heart disease and stroke YLLs increased by 17-28%. Regional variations in leading causes of death were substantial. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes still accounted for 76% of premature mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. Age standardised death rates from some key disorders rose (HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease in particular), but for most diseases, death rates fell in the past two decades; including major vascular diseases, COPD, most forms of cancer, liver cirrhosis, and maternal disorders. For other conditions, notably malaria, prostate cancer, and injuries, little change was noted. Population growth, increased average age of the world's population, and largely decreasing age-specific, sex-specific, and cause-specific death rates combine to drive a broad shift from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes towards non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes remain the dominant causes of YLLs in sub-Saharan Africa. Overlaid on this general pattern of the epidemiological transition, marked regional variation exists in many causes, such as interpersonal violence, suicide, liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, melanoma, and others. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of sound epidemiological assessments of the causes of death on a regular basis. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009.

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          Hepatitis A, B and C viral co-infections among HIV-infected adults presenting for care and treatment at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

          Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART) to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ≥18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC) of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%), while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%). None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1%) with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Institut National d’Hygiène de Lomé, Lome, Togo
            [2 ]Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé, Lome, Togo
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0647 9497, GRID grid.12364.32, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, , Université de Lomé, ; Lome, Togo
            [4 ]West Africa Field Epidemiology Training Program (WAFETP), Lome, Togo
            [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 8460, GRID grid.30760.32, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, , Medical College of Wisconsin, ; Milwaukee, WI USA
            [6 ]Direction Préfectorale de la Santé de Haho, Notse, Togo
            [7 ]Division de la Surveillance Intégrée et de Urgences Sanitaires, Lome, Togo
            [8 ]Division de la Santé Communautaire et des Personnes Agées, Lome, Togo
            [9 ]Université de Ouaga I, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6899-2884, hjacky78@yahoo.fr
            patassi40@yahoo.fr
            pauline@yahoo.fr
            ibanla@mcw.edu
            adjaho01@yahoo.fr
            issazoulkarneiri@yahoo.fr
            christestvivant@yahoo.fr
            tchanaldinio@yahoo.fr
            simpassane@yahoo.fr
            nabakarim@yahoo.fr
            bernardsawadogo@gmail.com
            antarason@yahoo.com
            pnlthatogo@yahoo.fr
            kerebanla@yahoo.fr
            didier.ekouevi@gmail.com
            idrissasanou@yahoo.com
            Journal
            BMC Public Health
            BMC Public Health
            BMC Public Health
            BioMed Central (London )
            1471-2458
            8 January 2019
            8 January 2019
            2019
            : 19
            30621652
            6323783
            6320
            10.1186/s12889-018-6320-x
            © The Author(s). 2019

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Categories
            Research Article
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2019

            Public health

            togo, lomé, serological profile, risk factors, hbs antigen

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