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      Pathogenesis and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review of Our Recent Basic and Clinical Data

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

      IgA nephropathy, Diabetic nephropathy, Peritoneal dialysis, Hemodialysis, Ultrasonography

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          Abstract

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that affects millions of people from all racial and ethnic groups. At end of 2013, over 300,000 Japanese patients had maintenance dialysis therapy (JSDT). In Japan, the major causes of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) are chronic glomerulonephritis (particularly IgA nephropathy), type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Hypertension is a major factor driving the progression of CKD to ESKD. Since many features of the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy are still obscure, specific treatment is not yet available. However, efforts by investigators around the world have gradually clarified different aspects of the pathogenesis and treatment of IgA nephropathy. Today, around half of all diabetic patients in Japan receive medical treatment. Type 2 diabetic nephropathy is one of the major long-term microvascular complications occurring in nearly 40% of Japanese diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy involves both genetic and environmental factors. However, the candidate genes related to the initiation and progression of the disorder are still obscure in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Regarding environmental factors, the toxicity of persistent hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species, systemic and/or glomerular hypertension, dyslipidemia and complement are considered to play an important role. The first part of this review covers the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy and type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and combines the clinicopathological findings in patients with our research on the ddY and KKA-y mouse models (spontaneous animal models for IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy, respectively). In Japan, the major renal replacement therapies (RRT) are peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). The second part of this review focuses on PD and HD. Based on our research findings from patients and as well as from animal models, we discuss strategies for the management of patients on PD and HD. i 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 116

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          Aliskiren combined with losartan in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

          Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. We evaluated the renoprotective effects of dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by adding treatment with aliskiren, an oral direct renin inhibitor, to treatment with the maximal recommended dose of losartan (100 mg daily) and optimal antihypertensive therapy in patients who had hypertension and type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. We enrolled 599 patients in this multinational, randomized, double-blind study. After a 3-month, open-label, run-in period during which patients received 100 mg of losartan daily, patients were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of treatment with aliskiren (150 mg daily for 3 months, followed by an increase in dosage to 300 mg daily for another 3 months) or placebo, in addition to losartan. The primary outcome was a reduction in the ratio of albumin to creatinine, as measured in an early-morning urine sample, at 6 months. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. Treatment with 300 mg of aliskiren daily, as compared with placebo, reduced the mean urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio by 20% (95% confidence interval, 9 to 30; P<0.001), with a reduction of 50% or more in 24.7% of the patients who received aliskiren as compared with 12.5% of those who received placebo (P<0.001). A small difference in blood pressure was seen between the treatment groups by the end of the study period (systolic, 2 mm Hg lower [P=0.07] and diastolic, 1 mm Hg lower [P=0.08] in the aliskiren group). The total numbers of adverse and serious adverse events were similar in the groups. Aliskiren may have renoprotective effects that are independent of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and nephropathy who are receiving the recommended renoprotective treatment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097955 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Circulating TNF receptors 1 and 2 predict ESRD in type 2 diabetes.

            Levels of proinflammatory cytokines associate with risk for developing type 2 diabetes but whether chronic inflammation contributes to the development of diabetic complications, such as ESRD, is unknown. In the 1990s, we recruited 410 patients with type 2 diabetes for studies of diabetic nephropathy and recorded their characteristics at enrollment. During 12 years of follow-up, 59 patients developed ESRD (17 per 1000 patient-years) and 84 patients died without ESRD (24 per 1000 patient-years). Plasma markers of systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and the TNF pathway were measured in the study entry samples. Of the examined markers, only TNF receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2) associated with risk for ESRD. These two markers were highly correlated, but ESRD associated more strongly with TNFR1. The cumulative incidence of ESRD for patients in the highest TNFR1 quartile was 54% after 12 years but only 3% for the other quartiles (P<0.001). In Cox proportional hazard analyses, TNFR1 predicted risk for ESRD even after adjustment for clinical covariates such as urinary albumin excretion. Plasma concentration of TNFR1 outperformed all tested clinical variables with regard to predicting ESRD. Concentrations of TNFRs moderately associated with death unrelated to ESRD. In conclusion, elevated concentrations of circulating TNFRs in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline are very strong predictors of the subsequent progression to ESRD in subjects with and without proteinuria.
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              Glomerular activation of the lectin pathway of complement in IgA nephropathy is associated with more severe renal disease.

              IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by glomerular co-deposition of IgA and complement components. Earlier studies showed that IgA activates the alternative pathway of complement, whereas more recent data also indicate activation of the lectin pathway. The lectin pathway can be activated by binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins to carbohydrate ligands, followed by activation of MBL-associated serine proteases and C4. This study examined the potential role of the lectin pathway in IgAN. Renal biopsies of patients with IgAN (n=60) showed mesangial deposition of IgA1 but not IgA2. Glomerular deposition of MBL was observed in 15 (25%) of 60 cases with IgAN and showed a mesangial pattern. All MBL-positive case, but none of the MBL-negative cases showed glomerular co-deposition of L-ficolin, MBL-associated serine proteases, and C4d. Glomerular deposition of MBL and L-ficolin was associated with more pronounced histologic damage, as evidenced by increased mesangial proliferation, extracapillary proliferation, glomerular sclerosis, and interstitial infiltration, as well as with significantly more proteinuria. Patients who had IgAN with or without glomerular MBL deposition did not show significant differences in serum levels of MBL, L-ficolin, or IgA or in the size distribution of circulating IgA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed clear binding of MBL to polymeric but not monomeric patient IgA, without a significant difference between both groups. Together, these findings strongly point to a role for the lectin pathway of complement in glomerular complement activation in IgAN and suggest a contribution for both MBL and L-ficolin in the progression of the disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                December 2014
                30 November 2014
                : 39
                : 5
                : 450-489
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                368458 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:450-489
                10.1159/000368458
                25501571
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 40
                Categories
                Review

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