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      The water relations and xylem attributes of albino redwood shoots ( Sequioa sempervirens (D. Don.) Endl.)

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          Abstract

          Plants that lack chlorophyll are rare and typically restricted to holoparasites that obtain their carbon, water and mineral resources from a host plant. Although not parasites in the traditional sense, albino foliage, such as the sprouts that sometimes develop from redwood tree trunks, are comparable in function. They occur sporadically, and can reach the size of shrubs and in rare cases, trees. Albino redwoods are interesting because in addition to their reduced carbon resources, the absence of chloroplasts may impede proper stomatal function, and both aspects may have upstream consequences on water transport and xylem quality. We examined the water relations, water transport and xylem anatomical attributes of albino redwoods and show that similar to achlorophyllous and parasitic plants, albino redwoods have notably higher stomatal conductance than green sprouts. Given that stem xylem tracheid size as well as water transport efficiency are nearly equivalent in both albino and green individuals, we attribute the increased leaf water loss in albino sprouts to lower leaf to xylem area ratios, which favour improved hydration relative to green sprouts. The stems of albino redwoods were more vulnerable to drought-induced embolism than green stems, and this was consistent with the albino's weaker tracheids, as characterized by wall thickness to lumen diameter measures. Our results are both complementary and consistent with previous research on achlorophyllous plants, and suggest that the loss of stomatal control and photosynthetic capacity results in substantial vascular and anatomical adjustments.

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          Most cited references 30

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          On the Computation of Saturation Vapor Pressure

           F. W. Murray (1967)
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            Light regulation of stomatal movement.

            Stomatal pores, each surrounded by a pair of guard cells, regulate CO2 uptake and water loss from leaves. Stomatal opening is driven by the accumulation of K+ salts and sugars in guard cells, which is mediated by electrogenic proton pumps in the plasma membrane and/or metabolic activity. Opening responses are achieved by coordination of light signaling, light-energy conversion, membrane ion transport, and metabolic activity in guard cells. In this review, we focus on recent progress in blue- and red-light-dependent stomatal opening. Because the blue-light response of stomata appears to be strongly affected by red light, we discuss underlying mechanisms in the interaction between blue-light signaling and guard cell chloroplasts.
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              Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world's woody plant species.

              The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of xylem (its ability to resist embolism formation and spread) should trade off against xylem efficiency (its capacity to transport water). We tested this safety-efficiency hypothesis in branch xylem across 335 angiosperm and 89 gymnosperm species. Safety was considered at three levels: the xylem water potentials where 12%, 50% and 88% of maximal conductivity are lost. Although correlations between safety and efficiency were weak (r(2)  < 0.086), no species had high efficiency and high safety, supporting the idea for a safety-efficiency tradeoff. However, many species had low efficiency and low safety. Species with low efficiency and low safety were weakly associated (r(2)  < 0.02 in most cases) with higher wood density, lower leaf- to sapwood-area and shorter stature. There appears to be no persuasive explanation for the considerable number of species with both low efficiency and low safety. These species represent a real challenge for understanding the evolution of xylem.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: InvestigationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                28 March 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, United States of America
                [2 ] Urban Adamah, Berkeley, California, United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Biology, California State University, California, United States of America
                [4 ] College of Arts and Science, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
                [5 ] Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park, Felton, California, United States of America
                Estacion Experimental del Zaidin, SPAIN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-26427
                10.1371/journal.pone.0191836
                5873723
                29590113
                © 2018 Pittermann et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100006358, University of California, Santa Cruz;
                Award ID: Faculty Research Grant
                Award Recipient :
                This work was supported by Faculty Research Grant, University of California, Santa Cruz. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Anatomy
                Leaves
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Anatomy
                Vascular Bundles
                Xylem
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Physiology
                Vascular Bundles
                Xylem
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Physiology
                Plant Reproduction
                Sprouts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Anatomy
                Leaves
                Stomata
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Anatomy
                Stem Anatomy
                Stomata
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Flowering Plants
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Shrubs
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Structures and Organelles
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Chlorophyll
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials by Attribute
                Pigments
                Organic Pigments
                Chlorophyll
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Structures and Organelles
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Cellular Types
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Cell Biology
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Cell Biology
                Plant Cells
                Chloroplasts
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