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New Reactions and Products Resulting from Alternative Interactions between the P450 Enzyme and Redox Partners

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      Abstract

      Cytochrome P450 enzymes are capable of catalyzing a great variety of synthetically useful reactions such as selective C–H functionalization. Surrogate redox partners are widely used for reconstitution of P450 activity based on the assumption that the choice of these auxiliary proteins or their mode of action does not affect the type and selectivity of reactions catalyzed by P450s. Herein, we present an exceptional example to challenge this postulate. MycG, a multifunctional biosynthetic P450 monooxygenase responsible for hydroxylation and epoxidation of 16-membered ring macrolide mycinamicins, is shown to catalyze the unnatural N-demethylation(s) of a range of mycinamicin substrates when partnered with the free Rhodococcus reductase domain RhFRED or the engineered Rhodococcus-spinach hybrid reductase RhFRED-Fdx. By contrast, MycG fused with the RhFRED or RhFRED-Fdx reductase domain mediates only physiological oxidations. This finding highlights the larger potential role of variant redox partner protein–protein interactions in modulating the catalytic activity of P450 enzymes.

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      Most cited references 53

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      Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

      The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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        Common and uncommon cytochrome P450 reactions related to metabolism and chemical toxicity.

        Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes catalyze a variety of reactions and convert chemicals to potentially reactive products as well as make compounds less toxic. Most of the P450 reactions are oxidations. The majority of these can be rationalized in the context of an FeO(3+) intermediate and odd electron abstraction/rebound mechanisms; however, other iron-oxygen complexes are possible and alternate chemistries can be considered. Another issue regarding P450-catalyzed reactions is the delineation of rate-limiting steps in the catalytic cycle and the contribution to reaction selectivity. In addition to the rather classical oxidations, P450s also catalyze less generally discussed reactions including reduction, desaturation, ester cleavage, ring expansion, ring formation, aldehyde scission, dehydration, ipso attack, one-electron oxidation, coupling reactions, rearrangement of fatty acid and prostaglandin hydroperoxides, and phospholipase activity. Most of these reactions are rationalized in the context of high-valent iron-oxygen intermediates and Fe(2+) reductions, but others are not and may involve acid-base catalysis. Some of these transformations are involved in the bioactivation and detoxication of xenobiotic chemicals.
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          Cytochrome P450 systems--biological variations of electron transport chains.

          Cytochromes P450 (P450) are hemoproteins encoded by a superfamily of genes nearly ubiquitously distributed in different organisms from all biological kingdoms. The reactions carried out by P450s are extremely diverse and contribute to the biotransformation of drugs, the bioconversion of xenobiotics, the bioactivation of chemical carcinogens, the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, eicosanoids, fat-soluble vitamins and bile acids, the conversion of alkanes, terpenes and aromatic compounds as well as the degradation of herbicides and insecticides. Cytochromes P450 belong to the group of external monooxygenases and thus receive the necessary electrons for oxygen cleavage and substrate hydroxylation from different redox partners. The classical as well as the recently discovered P450 redox systems are compiled in this paper and classified according to their composition.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            []CAS Key Laboratory of Biofuels, and Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Qingdao, Shandong 266101, China
            []University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100049, China
            [§ ]Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University , Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510, Japan
            []Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, and Department of Pathology, University of California , San Francisco, California 94158, United States
            []Life Sciences Institute, Departments of Medicinal Chemistry, Chemistry, and Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States
            Author notes
            Journal
            J Am Chem Soc
            J. Am. Chem. Soc
            ja
            jacsat
            Journal of the American Chemical Society
            American Chemical Society
            0002-7863
            1520-5126
            12 February 2015
            12 February 2014
            05 March 2014
            : 136
            : 9
            : 3640-3646
            24521145
            3985502
            10.1021/ja4130302
            Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
            Funding
            National Institutes of Health, United States
            Categories
            Article
            Custom metadata
            ja4130302
            ja-2013-130302

            Chemistry

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