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      Monocillium gamsii sp. nov. and Monocillium bulbillosum: two nematode-associated fungi parasitising the eggs of Heterodera filipjevi

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      MycoKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Monocillium gamsii sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Niessliaceae) isolated from eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi is described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic evidence. The new taxon discovered in wheat fields in Turkey destructively parasitises nematode eggs. The infected eggs were readily colonised by the fungus, which produced microsclerotia. The fungus could be grown on artificial media and the parasitism of M. gamsii towards H. filipjevi was reproducible in vitro. Hyphae penetrating the nematode eggs entirely colonised the embryo, developed into multicellular chlamydospore and dictyochlamydospore-like structures eventually forming microsclerotia. Molecular and morphological differences and similarities between M. gamsii and its phylogenetically related species are discussed. Monocillium bulbillosum was found to be closely related to the new species. The pathogenicity of M. bulbillosum against H. filipjevi was also assayed in vitro because of its sister group relationship to M. gamsii revealing that this species was also capable of colonising eggs of H. filipjevi.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

           S Altschul (1990)
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            Multigene phylogeny reveals new lineage for Stachybotrys chartarum, the indoor air fungus.

            Stachybotrys chartarum is an asexually reproducing fungus commonly isolated from soil and litter that is also known to occur in indoor environments and is implicated as the cause of serious illness and even death in humans. Despite its economic importance, higher level phylogenetic relationships of Stachybotrys have not been determined nor has a sexual state for S. chartarum been reported. DNA sequences from four nuclear and one mitochondrial gene were analyzed to determine the ordinal and familial placement of Stachybotrys within the Euascomycota. These data reveal that species of Stachybotrys including S. chartarum, S. albipes, for which the sexual state Melanopsamma pomiformis is reported, species of Myrothecium, and two other tropical hypocrealean species form a previously unknown monophyletic lineage within the Hypocreales. These results suggest that Stachybotrys and Myrothecium are closely related and share characteristics with other hypocrealean fungi. In addition, S. chartarum may have a sexual state in nature that consists of small, black, fleshy perithecia similar to Melanopsamma.
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              Fungal parasites of cyst nematodes

               Brian Kerry (1988)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4049
                1314-4057
                October 25 2017
                October 25 2017
                : 27
                : 21-38
                Article
                10.3897/mycokeys.27.21254
                © 2017

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