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      High Glucose Induces a Hypertrophic, Senescent Mesothelial Cell Phenotype after Long in vivo Exposure

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          Previous studies, done using our mouse model for population analysis of the mesothelium, showed evidence indicating that in vivo, long-term exposure (up to 30 days) of the peritoneum to high-glucose (4.25% D-glucose) concentration dialysis solutions resulted in a hypertrophic mesothelial phenotype characterized by increased cell surface area, multinucleation, low proliferative capabilities, reduced cell viability, and enhanced enzymatic activity. These elements that define a senescent population of cells were not related to the pH of the fluid and its osmolality, or to the presence of buffer lactate. The present study was designed to explore the adverse effects of a lactate-free, filter-sterilized, high- D-glucose concentration solution (4.25%) at normal pH and prepared in Hanks’ buffered salt solution after 2 h, 15 and 30 days of once a day intraperitoneal injection. Analysis of our observations indicate that in vivo exposure of the mesothelium to a high-glucose concentration induced a decreased density of the cell population, made up by larger and multinucleated cells, the viability of which was significantly lower than that observed in intact unexposed mice. The prevalence of mitosis showed an early and short-lived acceleration (up to 3 days), followed by values near zero during the rest of the follow-up period. So far, the main effect of the high-glucose concentration appears to result not from a mechanism of cytotoxicity, but from a substantial change in the life cycle of the exposed cell population, leading to their premature senescence and death in apoptosis. We hypothesize that this outcome may well be mediated by sustained oxidative stress derived from both a reduced production of scavengers, as well as the increased generation of oxygen-reactive species.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in collagen cross-linking by high glucose in vitro and in vivo.

          The Maillard reaction has been implicated in cross-linking and fluorescence formation of collagen exposed to high glucose in vitro. However, several pharmacologic agents, whose action seems unrelated to pathways of nonenzymatic glycation, have been demonstrated to prevent cross-linking in diabetes. To clarify this discrepancy, kinetic changes in glycation, glycoxidation (carboxymethyllysine, CML), and cross-linking (measured as tendon breaking time, TBT) were evaluated in rat tail tendons incubated in 5 and 30 mM glucose in vitro and in tendons implanted in vivo into diabetic rat peritoneal cavity. In vitro, rates were found to be both O2- and glucose-dependent. Tendon preglycation and presence of added 2 mM glycosylamine and Amadori compounds (Amadori product of glucose and propylamine) catalyzed these changes in a primarily O2-dependent manner. In the presence of Amadori compounds, kinetic changes were dramatically increased and were preventable by addition of catalase to the medium. Tendons implanted into diabetic rat peritoneum became more rapidly glycoxidized and cross-linked when implanted at day 30 from diabetes onset (high tissue glycation) compared to day 3 (low tissue glycation) in spite of similar glycation kinetics, suggesting a mechanistic dissociation between glycation, glycoxidation, and cross-linking in diabetes. Indeed, intraperitoneal injection of catalase and other antioxidants dramatically suppressed cross-linking, fluorescence formation, and, to some extent, glycoxidation, without affecting glycation. This study confirms the role of oxidative stress in protein cross-linking by the Maillard reaction in vitro and provides the first evidence for a role of H2O2 in cross-linking in diabetes. Whereas Amadori products are a potent source of H2O2 formation in vitro, their precise contribution to H2O2 generation and the actual role of Maillard reaction products in collagen cross-linking in diabetes requires further investigation.
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            Transient Adaptation to Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Cells

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              The relationship between cell size, the activity of DNA polymerase α and proliferative activity in human diploid fibroblast-like cell cultures


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 1999
                04 June 1999
                : 82
                : 2
                : 164-173
                Department of Nephrology and Hypertension and Kornach Laboratory for Experimental Nephrology, ‘Ha’Emek’ Medical Center, Afula, Israel
                45393 Nephron 1999;82:164–173
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 14, References: 56, Pages: 10
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