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      Isolation and characterization of endothelial progenitor cells from Rhesus monkeys

      Regenerative Medicine Research
      BioMed Central
      epcs, isolation, cell culture, cell proliferation, characterization, monkey

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          Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are increasingly becoming a major focus of regenerative medicine research and practice. The present study was undertaken to establish an appropriate procedure for isolation and characterization of EPCs from Rhesus monkeys for regenerative medicine research. Result Selective CD34+ and nonselective mononuclear EPCs were isolated from bone marrow and cultured under varying conditions. The results showed that nonselective mononuclear EPCs were a better choice for high yield of the target cells. The cells grew in M 200 better than in EGM-2, and supplementation with fetal bovine serum promoted cell proliferation; but serum level at 7.5% was better than at 10%. In addition, surface coating of the culture dishes with human fibronectin significantly improved the proliferation and ontogeny of the isolated EPCs. Immunocytochemistry including detection of markers CD34, CD133 and CD31 and double-staining for Ac-LDL and lectin verified the purity of the cultured mononuclear EPCs. Conclusion By a thorough analysis, we established a practical procedure for isolation and propagation of EPCs from Rhesus monkeys. This procedure would help using these valuable cells for regenerative medicine research.

          Most cited references21

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          Characterization of two types of endothelial progenitor cells and their different contributions to neovasculogenesis.

          Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in one study group is not the same as EPC in other investigators, suggesting that EPC is not a single type of cell population. In this study, we tried to demonstrate the heterogeneity of EPC. We cultured total mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood to get two types of EPC sequentially from the same donors. We called them early EPC and late EPC. Early EPC with spindle shape showed peak growth at 2 to 3 weeks and died at 4 weeks, whereas late EPC with cobblestone shape appeared late at 2 to 3 weeks, showed exponential growth at 4 to 8 weeks, and lived up to 12 weeks. Late EPC was different from early EPC in the expression of VE-cadherin, Flt-1, KDR, and CD45. Late EPC produced more nitric oxide, incorporated more readily into human umbilical vein endothelial cells monolayer, and formed capillary tube better than early EPC. Early EPC secreted angiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin 8) more so than late EPC during culture in vitro. Both types of EPC showed comparable in vivo vasculogenic capacity. We found two types of EPC from a source of adult peripheral blood that might have different roles in neovasculogenesis based on the identified differences.
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            Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization

            Animal studies and preliminary results in humans suggest that lower extremity and myocardial ischemia can be attenuated by treatment with angiogenic cytokines. The resident population of endothelial cells that is competent to respond to an available level of angiogenic growth factors, however, may potentially limit the extent to which cytokine supplementation enhances tissue neovascularization. Accordingly, we transplanted human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) to athymic nude mice with hindlimb ischemia. Blood flow recovery and capillary density in the ischemic hindlimb were markedly improved, and the rate of limb loss was significantly reduced. Ex vivo expanded hEPCs may thus have utility as a "supply-side" strategy for therapeutic neovascularization.
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              Intramyocardial transplantation of autologous endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization of myocardial ischemia.

              We investigated whether catheter-based, intramyocardial transplantation of autologous endothelial progenitor cells can enhance neovascularization in myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia was induced by placement of an ameroid constrictor around swine left circumflex artery. Four weeks after constrictor placement, CD31+ mononuclear cells (MNCs) were freshly isolated from the peripheral blood of each animal. After overnight incubation of CD31+ MNCs in noncoated plates, nonadhesive cells (NA/CD31+ MNCs) were harvested as the endothelial progenitor cell-enriched fraction. Nonadhesive CD31- cells (NA/CD31- MNCs) were also prepared. Autologous transplantation of 10(7) NA/CD31+ MNCs, 10(7) NA/CD31- MNCs, or PBS was performed with a NOGA mapping injection catheter to target ischemic myocardium. In a parallel study, 10(5) human CD34+ MNCs, 10(5) human CD34- MNCs, or PBS was transplanted into ischemic myocardium of nude rats 10 minutes after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In the swine study, ischemic area by NOGA mapping, Rentrop grade angiographic collateral development, and echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly 4 weeks after transplantation of NA/CD31+ MNCs but not after injection of NA/CD31- MNCs or PBS. Capillary density in ischemic myocardium 4 weeks after transplantation was significantly greater in the NA/CD31+ MNC group than the control groups. In the rat study, echocardiographic left ventricular systolic function and capillary density were significantly better preserved in the CD34+ MNC group than in the control groups 4 weeks after myocardial ischemia. These favorable outcomes encourage future clinical trials of catheter-based, intramyocardial transplantation of autologous CD34+ MNCs in the setting of chronic myocardial ischemia.

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                epcs,isolation,cell culture,cell proliferation,characterization,monkey


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