Oral exfoliative cytology is a simple, nonaggressive technique that is well accepted by patients. Therefore, it is an attractive option, which aids in the diagnosis and observation of epithelial atypias associated with oral mucosal diseases.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quantitative and qualitative alterations in exfoliative smears from type 2 diabetics and healthy individuals.
The study includes 30 type 2 diabetics and 30 healthy persons of both sexes. PAP and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained smears were prepared from buccal mucosa (BM), tongue (T), floor of the mouth (FOM), and palate (P). Under a light microscope, 50 clearly defined unfolded epithelial cells were quantitatively evaluated for cellular area (CA), nuclear area (NA), and cellular-to-nuclear area ratio (CA:NA) and assessed for morphological features.
Collected data was manually entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13.5 for analysis. Student's t-test was used at 95% confidence interval.
Quantitative assessment of the overall mean CA was less, mean NA was more, and mean CA:NA was less in diabetics than that in healthy persons at all the four sites. Diabetic oral cells showed qualiative cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations: cytoplasmic vacuoles, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, pyknosis, peri-nuclear halo, binucleation, nuclear vacuoles, inflammation, and microbial colonies.