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      An experimental test of stationary lay-up periods and simulated transit on biofouling accumulation and transfer on ships.

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          Abstract

          Biofouling accumulation on ships' submerged surfaces typically occurs during stationary periods that render surfaces more susceptible to colonization than when underway. As a result, stationary periods longer than typical port residence times (hours to days), often referred to as lay-ups, can have deleterious effects on hull maintenance strategies, which aim to minimize biofouling impacts on ship operations and the likelihood of invasive species transfers. This experimental study tested the effects of different lay-up durations on the magnitude of biofouling, before and after exposure to flow, using fouling panels with three coating treatments (antifouling, foul-release, and controls), at two sites, and a portable field flume to simulate voyage sheer forces. Control panels subjected to extended stationary durations (28-, 45- and 60-days) had significantly higher biofouling cover and there was a 13- to 25-fold difference in biofouling accumulation between 10-days and 28-days of static immersion. Prior to flume exposure, the antifouling coating prevented biofouling accumulation almost entirely at one site and kept it below 20% at the other. Foul-release coatings also proved effective, especially after flume exposure, which reduced biofouling at one site from >52% to <6% cover (on average). The experimental approach was beneficial for co-locating panel deployments and flume processing using a consistent (standardized) flow regime on large panels across sites of differing conditions and biofouling assemblages. While lay-ups of commercial vessels are relatively common, inevitable, and unavoidable, it is important to develop a better understanding of the magnitude of their effects on biofouling of ships' submerged surfaces and to develop workable post-lay-up approaches to manage and respond to elevated biofouling accumulation that may result.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Biofouling
          Biofouling
          Informa UK Limited
          1029-2454
          0892-7014
          April 2020
          : 36
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, USA.
          [2 ] Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand.
          [3 ] Estuary and Ocean Science Center, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Tiburon, CA, USA.
          [4 ] Marine Invasive Species Program, California State Lands Commission, Long Beach, CA, USA.
          Article
          10.1080/08927014.2020.1769612
          32476480
          bcb0778a-8ed7-4d40-9f38-7255ec49afe2
          History

          Antifouling coating,flume,foul-release coating,introduced species,lay-up,ship biofouling

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