Studies on the fish fauna of the Xingu river basin are mainly concentrated in the main channel of the river or its large tributaries, due to requirements all faunal surveys in hydroelectric power plant projects. Our goal was to conduct a survey of the composition of fish fauna in headwater streams (lotic environments) and small reservoirs (artificial lentic environments) built on these streams in the upper Xingu River region. Fish were sampled in the dry period, July 2013, using active sampling methods in a 100 meter-section at each sampling site. We recorded the occurrence of 33 species of five orders and 16 families. Characiformes was the most species-rich order, with 19 species, followed by Siluriformes, Gymnotiformes and Perciformes, with four species each.