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      Osteogenic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes on steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head

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          Abstract

          Background

          Animal studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on osteogenesis, but little is known about the functions of exosomes (Exos) released by bone MSCs (BMSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of BMSC Exos on steroid-induced femoral head necrosis (SFHN) and explored the vital genes involved in this process.

          Materials and methods

          BMSCs were isolated from healthy and SFHN rats. BMSC Exos were isolated using the Exosome Precipitation Kit and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting. SFHN BMSCs were incubated with Exos from healthy BMSCs. Osteogenic ability was assessed by oil red O staining and alizarine red staining. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by Exos were screened using the Osteogenesis RT 2 Profiler PCR Array. The effect of upregulated Sox9 was examined using lentivirus-mediated siRNA.

          Results

          The results revealed that BMSC Exos were 100–150 nm in size and expressed CD63. Moreover, BMSC Exo-treated SFHN cells exhibited suppressed adipogenesis compared to model cells. PCR array showed that eleven and nine genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in the BMSC Exo-treated SFHN cells compared to the model group. Among the DEGs, osteogenesis-related genes, including Bmp2, Bmp6, Bmpr1b, Mmp9, and Sox9, may play important roles in SFHN. Furthermore, the DEGs were mainly involved in immune response, osteoblast differentiation, and in the transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway. The level of the SOX9 protein was upregulated by Exos, and Sox9 silencing significantly decreased the osteogenic effect of BMSC Exos.

          Conclusion

          Our data suggest that Exos derived from BMSCs mainly affect SFHN osteogenesis, and this finding can be further investigated to develop a novel therapeutic agent for SFHN.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Exosomes: secreted vesicles and intercellular communications

          Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types, and are thought to play important roles in intercellular communications. Although exosomes were originally described in 1983, interest in these vesicles has really increased dramatically in the last 3 years, after the finding that they contain mRNA and microRNA. This discovery sparked renewed interest for the general field of membrane vesicles involved in intercellular communications, and research on these structures has grown exponentially over the last few years, probing their composition and function, as well as their potential value as biomarkers.
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            Exosomes: a common pathway for a specialized function.

            Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are released by cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Their molecular composition reflects their origin in endosomes as intraluminal vesicles. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic molecules, exosomes harbor unique subsets of proteins linked to cell type-associated functions. Exosome secretion participates in the eradication of obsolete proteins but several findings, essentially in the immune system, indicate that exosomes constitute a potential mode of intercellular communication. Release of exosomes by tumor cells and their implication in the propagation of unconventional pathogens such as prions suggests their participation in pathological situations. These findings open up new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies.
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              Adipocyte tissue volume in bone marrow is increased with aging and in patients with osteoporosis.

              Aging of the human skeleton is characterized by decreased bone formation and bone mass and these changes are more pronounced in patients with osteoporosis. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common precursor cell in the bone marrow, we hypothesized that decreased bone formation observed during aging and in patients with osteoporosis is the result of enhanced adipognesis versus osteoblastogenesis from precursor cells in the bone marrow. Thus, we examined iliac crest bone biopsies obtained from 53 healthy normal individuals (age 30-100) and 26 patients with osteoporosis (age 52-92). Adipose tissue volume fraction (AV), hematopoietic tissue volume fraction (HV) and trabecular bone volume fraction (BV) were quantitated as a percentage of total tissue volume fraction (TV) (calculated as BV + AV + HV) using the point-counting method. We found an age-related increase in AV/TV (r = 0.53, P < 0.001, n = 53) and an age-related decline in BV/TV (r = -0.46, P < 0.001, n = 53) as well as in the HV/TV (r -0.318, P < 0.05, n = 53). There was an age-related inverse correlation between BV/TV and AV/TV (r = -0.58, P < 0.001). No significant correlation between the AV/TV and the body mass index (r = 0.06, n.s., n = 52) was detectable. Compared with age-matched controls, patients with osteoporosis exhibited an increased AV/TV (P < 0.05) and decreased BV/TV (P < 0.05) but no statistically significant difference in HV/TV. Our data support the hypothesis that with aging and in osteoporosis an enhanced adipogenesis is observed in the bone marrow and that these changes are inversely correlated to decreased trabecular bone volume. The cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating these changes remain to be determined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2019
                18 December 2018
                : 13
                : 45-55
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005, China, 290633950@ 123456qq.com
                [2 ]Department of Bone Surgery, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Peng Chen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, No 20, Chazhong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou 350005, China, Email 290633950@ 123456qq.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-13-045
                10.2147/DDDT.S178698
                6305133
                © 2019 Fang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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