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      Regional anesthesia is safe and effective for lower limb orthopedic surgery in patient with renal tubular acidosis and hypokalemia

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          Abstract

          Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with hypokalemia may precipitate acute respiratory failure and potentially fatal arrhythmias like ventricular fibrillation. Though there are random reports of respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation and sudden death in patients with RTA and hypokalemia, the anesthetic management of these patients has not been clearly elucidated. Acidosis and hypokalemia have significant interactions with both general and local anesthetics and alter their effect substantially. Proper preoperative planning and optimization are required for the safe conduct of anesthesia in this subset of patients. We describe a case of distal RTA, hypokalemia, and metabolic bone disease in whom central neuraxial anesthesia was effectively used for lower limb orthopedic surgery with no complications.

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          Most cited references 10

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          A comparison of Plasmalyte 148 and 0.9% saline for intra-operative fluid replacement.

           C. McFarlane,  A. Lee (1994)
          Thirty patients undergoing major hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either 0.9% saline or Plasmalyte 148 (a balanced salt solution), at 15 ml.kg-1.h-1. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed before and after surgery. Plasma biochemistry (Na+, K+, Cl-, lactate) measurements were made before and after surgery and at 24 h after surgery. The patients receiving 0.9% saline had significantly increased chloride concentrations (p < 0.01), decreased standard bicarbonate concentrations (p < 0.01) and increased base deficit (p < 0.01) compared to those receiving Plasmalyte 148. There were no significant changes in plasma sodium or potassium or blood lactate concentrations in either group. The exclusive use of 0.9% saline intra-operatively can produce a temporary hyperchloraemic acidosis which could be given false pathological significance. In addition it may exacerbate an acidosis resulting from an actual pathological state. The use of a balanced salt solution such as Plasmalyte 148 may avoid these complications.
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            Tourniquets in orthopedic surgery

            Tourniquets are commonly used in limb surgeries, be it orthopedic or plastic surgeries. But the inflation pressures, the duration, and release guidelines are still not clear. According to a survey, majority of orthopedic surgeons inflate the tourniquet to fixed pressures for the upper and the lower limbs without considering the baseline blood pressure of the patient on whom the tourniquets are being applied. This review was designed to recall and review the safe use of tourniquets and the various techniques that can be employed to minimize the complications of tourniquet use. Google, science direct, and pubmed were searched for appropriate literature and relevant articles were identified.
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              Metabolic acidosis.

               Salim Lim (2007)
              Acute metabolic acidosis is frequently encountered in critically ill patients. Metabolic acidosis can occur as a result of either the accumulation of endogenous acids that consumes bicarbonate (high anion gap metabolic acidosis) or loss of bicarbonate from the gastrointestinal tract or the kidney (hyperchloremic or normal anion gap metabolic acidosis). The cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis includes lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, renal failure and intoxication with ethylene glycol, methanol, salicylate and less commonly with pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline), propylene glycole or djenkol bean (gjenkolism). The most common causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, renal tubular acidosis, drugs-induced hyperkalemia, early renal failure and administration of acids. The appropriate treatment of acute metabolic acidosis, in particular organic form of acidosis such as lactic acidosis, has been very controversial. The only effective treatment for organic acidosis is cessation of acid production via improvement of tissue oxygenation. Treatment of acute organic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the morbidity and mortality despite improvement in acid-base parameters. Further studies are required to determine the optimal treatment strategies for acute metabolic acidosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol
                J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol
                JOACP
                Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0970-9185
                2231-2730
                Jan-Mar 2018
                : 34
                : 1
                : 117-119
                Affiliations
                Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Indira Gurajala, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana, India. E-mail: indiradevraj@ 123456yahoo.co.in
                Article
                JOACP-34-117
                10.4103/0970-9185.168203
                5885426
                Copyright: © 2018 Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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