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# Enhanced Transformation of Atrazine by High Efficient Visible Light-Driven N, S-Codoped TiO2Nanowires Photocatalysts

, ,

Hindawi Limited

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### Abstract

Advanced oxidation process using titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst under solar irradiation is one of the most attractive technologies to eliminate atrazine, an endocrine disrupting and carcinogen contaminant. The N, S-codoped TiO 2nanowires at the calcination of 600°C obtained by a facile hydrothermal method revealed the best photocatalytic performance for the degradation of atrazine under visible light irradiation compared to N, S-codoped TiO 2nanoparticles and S-doped TiO 2nanowires. TOC removal experiment also exhibited the similar result and achieved 63% of atrazine mineralization within 6 h. The degradation of atrazine was driven mainly by OH and holes during the photocatalytic process. Reactive species quantities such OH and $O 2 • -$generated by N, S-codoped TiO 2nanowires under visible light irradiation were much more than those of S-doped TiO 2nanowires and N, S-codoped TiO 2nanoparticles. These results were mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of N and S doping in narrowing the band gap, remarkable increase in electron-hole separation, extending the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature above 600°C, and preferentially exposing high reactive ${ 001 }$crystal facets of anatase.

### Most cited references28

• Record: found

### Intensity Dependence of the Back Reaction and Transport of Electrons in Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2Solar Cells

(2000)
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• Record: found

### Anatase TiO2 single crystals with exposed {001} and {110} facets: facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalysis

(2010)
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• Record: found
• Abstract: found

### Impacts of atrazine in aquatic ecosystems.

(2001)
A portion of all herbicides applied to forests, croplands, road sides, and gardens are inevitably lost to water bodies either directly through runoff or indirectly by leaching through groundwater into ephemeral streams and lakes. Once in the aquatic environment, herbicides may cause stress within aquatic communities and radically alter community structure. Atrazine is one of the most effective and inexpensive herbicides in the world and is consequently used more frequently than any other herbicide. Atrazine is frequently detected in aquatic waters, and has been known to affect reproduction of aquatic flora and fauna, which in turn impacts on the community structure as a whole. This paper presents a summary of the reported direct and indirect impacts of atrazine on aquatic organisms and community structure. The information can be used for developing improved management guidelines and legislation. It is concluded that a single universal maximum limit on the atrazine application in catchments, as suggested by many regulatory authorities, does not provide adequate protection of the aquatic environment. Rather, it is advocated that flexible limits on the application of atrazine be developed in line with the potential risk of contamination to surface and subsurface water and fragility of the aquatic environment.
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### Author and article information

###### Journal
International Journal of Photoenergy
International Journal of Photoenergy
Hindawi Limited
1110-662X
1687-529X
2014
2014
: 2014
:
: 1-8
10.1155/2014/425836