Ovarian cancer (OC) accounts for more than 150,000 deaths worldwide every year. Patients are often diagnosed at an advanced stage with metastatic dissemination. Although platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapies are effective treatment options, they are rarely curative and eventually, the disease will progress due to acquired resistance. Emerging evidence suggests a crucial role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the response to therapy in OC. Transcriptome profiling studies using high throughput approaches have identified differential expression patterns of lncRNAs associated with disease recurrence. Furthermore, several aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in resistant OC cells have been related to increased cell division, improved DNA repair, up-regulation of drug transporters or reduced susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli, supporting their involvement in acquired resistance. In this review, we will discuss the key aspects of lncRNAs associated with the development of resistance to platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy in OC. The molecular landscape of OC will be introduced, to provide a background for understanding the role of lncRNAs in the acquisition of malignant properties. We will focus on the interplay between lncRNAs and molecular pathways affecting drug response to evaluate their impact on treatment resistance. Additionally, we will discuss the prospects of using lncRNAs as biomarkers or targets for precision medicine in OC. Although there is still plenty to learn about lncRNAs and technical challenges to be solved, the evidence of their involvement in OC and the development of acquired resistance are compelling and warrant further investigation for clinical applications.