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      Construction of interference vector targeting Ep-CAM gene and its effects on colorectal cancer cell proliferation

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          Abstract

          Background

          Prior study indicates that abnormal protein expression and functional changes in the development and progression of colorectal cancer is related to gene expression. The aim of this study was to construct an interference plasmid targeting the Ep-CAM gene and to investigate its effects on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

          Methods

          In this study, HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell lines were selected as cell models. The double-stranded micro (mi)RNA oligo was inserted into the pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR vector, which is an expression of miRNA. Lipofectamine™ 2000 was used to transfer plasmid into the empty plasmid group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-neg) and the interference group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-Ep-CAM-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the nontransferred HT-29 and HCT-116 acts as the blank control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the transfection efficiency. Western blot was used to detect Ep-CAM protein expression. The cell proliferation in each group was detected by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

          Results

          The results indicated that the Ep-CAM messenger (m)RNA expression in the interference group was lower significantly compared with that of the empty plasmid group and control group ( P<0.01). Western blot analysis results showed that Ep-CAM protein expression was significantly lower in interference group compared with that of the empty plasmid group and the control group ( P<0.01). MTT assay results demonstrated that the proliferation ability of cells in the interference group was significantly inhibited compared with the two other groups ( P<0.05).

          Conclusion

          Silencing of Ep-CAM can significantly inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

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          Most cited references 23

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          EpCAM (CD326) finding its role in cancer

          Although epithelial cell adhesion/activating molecule (EpCAM/CD326) is one of the first tumour-associated antigens identified, it has never received the same level of attention as other target proteins for therapy of cancer. It is also striking that ever since its discovery in the late 1970s the actual contribution of EpCAM to carcinogenesis remained unexplored until very recently. With a First International Symposium on EpCAM Biology and Clinical Application this is now changing. Key topics discussed at the meeting were the frequency and level of EpCAM expression on various cancers and its prognostic potential, the role of EpCAM as an oncogenic signalling molecule for cancer cells, recent progress on EpCAM-directed immunotherapeutic approaches in clinical development and the interaction of EpCAM with other proteins, which may provide a basis for a therapeutic window and repression of its growth-promoting signalling in carcinoma. Future research on EpCAM may benefit from a unified nomenclature and more frequent exchange among those who have been working on this cancer target during the past 30 years and will do so in the future.
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            EpCAM is overexpressed in breast cancer and is a potential target for breast cancer gene therapy.

            EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) is a cell surface molecule that is known to be highly expressed in colon and other epithelial carcinomas. EpCAM is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion and has been the target of antibody therapy in several clinical trials. To assess the value of EpCAM as a novel target for breast cancer gene therapy, we performed real-time reverse transcription-PCR to quantify the level of EpCAM mRNA expression in normal breast tissue and primary and metastatic breast cancers. We found that EpCAM is overexpressed 100- to 1000-fold in primary and metastatic breast cancer. Silencing EpCAM gene expression with EpCAM short interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a 35-80% decrease in the rate of cell proliferation in four different breast cancer cell lines. EpCAM siRNA treatment decreased cell migration by 91.8% and cell invasion by 96.4% in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro. EpCAM siRNA treatment was also associated with an increase in the detergent-insoluble protein fraction of E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin, consistent with the known biology of EpCAM as a regulator of cell adhesion. Our hypothesis is that modulation of EpCAM expression can affect cell migration, invasion, and proliferation by enhancing E-cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion. These data provide compelling evidence that EpCAM is a potential novel target for breast cancer gene therapy and offer insights into the mechanisms associated with EpCAM gene silencing.
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              EpCAM: structure and function in health and disease.

              Injection of tumor cells in mice more than 30 years ago resulted in the discovery of an epithelial antigen, later defined as a cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Although EpCAM has since evoked significant interest as a target in cancer therapy, mechanistic insights on the functions of this glycoprotein have been emerging only very recently. This may have been caused by the multitude of functions attributed to the glycoprotein, its localization at different subcellular sites and complex posttranslational modifications. Here, we review how EpCAM modifies cell-cell contact adhesion strength and tissue plasticity, and how it regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. Major knowledge derived from human diseases will be highlighted: Mutant EpCAM that is absent from the cell surface leads to fatal intestinal abnormalities (congenital tufting enteropathy). EpCAM-mediated cell proliferation in cancer may result from signaling (i) via regulated intramembrane proteolysis and/or (ii) the localization and association with binding partners in specialized membrane microdomains. New insight in EpCAM signaling will help to develop optimized cancer therapies and open new avenues in the field of regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                14 May 2015
                : 9
                : 2647-2652
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Binzhou People’s Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of General Surgery, Binzhou People’s Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fengqiang Zhou, Department of General Surgery, Binzhou People’s Hospital, 515, Huanghe 7th Road, Bincheng, Binzhou 256600, Shandong, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 543 328 2500, Fax +86 543 328 2500, Email zhouffhu8013@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                dddt-9-2647
                10.2147/DDDT.S82917
                4440878
                26028961
                © 2015 Qi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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