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      Novel Insertion 496_497insG Creating a Stop Codon D194X in a Chinese Family with X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

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          Abstract

          X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD, MIM 300100), the commonest inherited peroxisomal disorder, is characterized by central nervous system demyelination, primary adrenal failure and the systemic accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The defective gene ABCD1 encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport protein named ALDP, which functions as a crucial transporter of VLCFAs into the peroxisomes for β-oxidation. Here, we report a Chinese man with adrenomyeloneuropathy characterized by Addison’s disease and spastic paraparesis. His plasma VLCFA levels, ratios of C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were all significantly elevated. We performed mutation analysis of the ABCD1 gene in the proband and the family members using direct DNA sequencing and restriction analysis. A novel insertion 496_497insG in exon 1 causing a frame shift and a premature stop codon at amino acid position 194 (D194X) was identified (GenBank accession No. NM_000033). The insertional mutation abolishes an HhaI restriction site. The same mutation was found in his mother and the eldest sister even though their clinical and biochemical abnormalities were milder. Diagnosis of XALD often relies upon the detection of elevated VLCFA levels and ratios of C26:0/C22:0 and C24:0/C22:0 in fasting blood, however, 5–15% of the obligate heterozygotes would give normal values. DNA-based testing thus remains the most reliable tool for heterozygote detection when the disease-causing mutations are known. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism with HhaI, we have devised a rapid method for the identification of the carriers among the proband’s family members and possibly for the screening of the mutations in other XALD patients.

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          Most cited references 8

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          ABCD1 mutations and the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mutation database: role in diagnosis and clinical correlations.

          X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal ABC half-transporter (ALDP) involved in the import of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome. The disease is characterized by a striking and unpredictable variation in phenotypic expression. Phenotypes include the rapidly progressive childhood cerebral form (CCALD), the milder adult form, adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), and variants without neurologic involvement. There is no apparent correlation between genotype and phenotype. In males, unambiguous diagnosis can be achieved by demonstration of elevated levels of VLCFA in plasma. In 15 to 20% of obligate heterozygotes, however, test results are false-negative. Therefore, mutation analysis is the only reliable method for the identification of heterozygotes. Since most X-ALD kindreds have a unique mutation, a great number of mutations have been identified in the ABCD1 gene in the last seven years. In order to catalog and facilitate the analysis of these mutations, we have established a mutation database for X-ALD ( http://www.x-ald.nl). In this review we report a detailed analysis of all 406 X-ALD mutations currently included in the database. Also, we present 47 novel mutations. In addition, we review the various X-ALD phenotypes, the different diagnostic tools, and the need for extended family screening for the identification of new patients. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Accurate DNA-based diagnostic and carrier testing for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

            X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a serious and often fatal disorder, affecting the white matter of the nervous system, the adrenal cortex, and the testis. The gene mutated in X-ALD encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, ALDP. The presence of very long chain fatty acids in plasma is highly diagnostic for affected males and carrier females, but exclusion of carrier status biochemically is unreliable. Molecular analysis of the X-ALD gene has the potential to either identify or rule out carrier status accurately, but is complicated by the existence of autosomal paralogs. We have developed and validated a robust DNA diagnostic test for this disorder involving nonnested genomic amplification of the X-ALD gene, followed by fluorescent dye-primer sequencing and analysis. This protocol provides a highly reliable means of determining carrier status in women at risk for transmitting X-ALD and is applicable to a clinical diagnostic laboratory. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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              Mutational analysis of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

              Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder characterized by elevated very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels, reduced activity of peroxisomal VLCFA-CoA ligase, and variable phenotypic expression. A putative gene for ALD was recently identified and surprisingly encodes a protein (ALDP) that belongs to a family of transmembrane transporters regulated or activated by ATP (the ABC proteins). We have examined genomic DNA from ALD probands for mutations in the putative ALD gene. We detected large deletions of the carboxyl-terminal portion of the gene in 4 of 112 probands. Twenty-five of the ALD probands whose ALD genes appeared normal by Southern blot analysis were surveyed for mutations by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) procedures and DNA sequence analysis. SSCP variants were detected in 22 probands and none in 60 X-chromosomes from normal individuals. Mutations were detected in all of the ALD probands. The mutations were distributed throughout the gene and did not correlate with phenotype. Approximately half were non-recurrent missense mutations of which 64% occurred in CpG dinucleotides. There was a cluster of frameshift mutations in a small region of exon 5, including an identical AG deletion in 7 unrelated probands. These data strongly support the supposition that mutations in the putative ALD gene result in ALD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                January 2005
                20 January 2005
                : 63
                : 1
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Clinical Biochemistry, Queen Mary Hospital, and bDepartment of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
                Article
                82319 Horm Res 2005;63:1–5
                10.1159/000082319
                15564782
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 10, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Case Report

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