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      Differential Change in Oculomotor Performance among Female Collegiate Soccer Players versus Non-Contact Athletes from Pre- to Post-Season

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          Abstract

          Sensitive and reliable tools are needed to evaluate potential behavioral and cognitive changes following head impact exposure in contact and collision sport participation. We evaluated change in oculomotor testing performance among female, varsity, collegiate athletes following variable exposure to head impacts across a season. Female, collegiate, contact sport (soccer, CONT) and non-contact sport (NON-CONT) athletes were assessed pre-season and post-season. Soccer athletes were grouped according to total season game headers into low dose (≤40 headers; CONT-Low Dose) or high dose (>40 headers; CONT-High Dose) groups. Performance on pro-saccade (reflexive visual response), anti-saccade (executive inhibition), and memory-guided saccade (MGS, spatial working memory) computer-based laboratory tasks were assessed. Primary saccade measures included latency/reaction time, inhibition error rate (anti-saccade only), and spatial accuracy (MGS only). NON-CONT ( n = 20 ), CONT-Low Dose ( n = 17), and CONT-High Dose ( n = 7) groups significantly differed on pre-season versus post-season latency on tasks with executive functioning demands (anti-saccade and MGS, p ≤ 0.001). Specifically, NON-CONT and CONT-Low Dose demonstrated shorter (i.e., faster) anti-saccade (1.84% and 2.68%, respectively) and MGS (5.74% and 2.76%, respectively) latencies from pre-season to post-season, whereas CONT-High Dose showed 1.40% average longer anti-saccade, and 0.74% shorter MGS, latencies. NON-CONT and CONT-Low Dose demonstrated reduced (i.e., improved) inhibition error rate on the anti-saccade task at post-season versus pre-season, whereas CONT-High Dose demonstrated relative stability ( p = 0.021). The results of this study suggest differential exposure to subconcussive head impacts in collegiate female athletes is associated with differential change in reaction time and inhibitory control performances on executive saccadic oculomotor testing.

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          A global measure of perceived stress.

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            Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories -IA and -II in psychiatric outpatients.

            The amended (revised) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-IA; Beck & Steer, 1993b) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) were self-administered to 140 psychiatric outpatients with various psychiatric disorders. The coefficient alphas of the BDI-IA and the BDI-II were, respectively, .89 and .91. The mean rating for Sadness on the BDI-IA was higher than it was on the BDI-II, but the mean ratings for Past Failure, Self-Dislike, Change in Sleeping Pattern, and Change in Appetite were higher on the BDI-II than they were on the BDI-IA. The mean BDI-II total score was approximately 2 points higher than it was for the BDI-IA, and the outpatients also endorsed approximately one more symptom on the BDI-II than they did on the BDI-IA. The correlations of BDI-IA and BDI-II total scores with sex, ethnicity, age, the diagnosis of a mood disorder, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1993a) were within 1 point of each other for the same variables.
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              Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury.

              Since the 1920s, it has been known that the repetitive brain trauma associated with boxing may produce a progressive neurological deterioration, originally termed dementia pugilistica, and more recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). We review 48 cases of neuropathologically verified CTE recorded in the literature and document the detailed findings of CTE in 3 profession althletes, 1 football player and 2 boxers. Clinically, CTE is associated with memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, parkinsonism, and speech and gait abnormalities. Neuropathologically, CTE is characterized by atrophy of the cerebral hemispheres, medial temporal lobe, thalamus, mammillary bodies, and brainstem, with ventricular dilatation and a fenestrated cavum septum pellucidum. Microscopically, there are extensive tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic tangles, and spindle-shaped and threadlike neurites throughout the brain. The neurofibrillary degeneration of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies by preferential involvement of the superficial cortical layers, irregular patchy distribution in the frontal and temporal cortices, propensity for sulcal depths, prominent perivascular, periventricular, and subpial distribution, and marked accumulation of tau-immunoreactive astrocytes. Deposition of beta-amyloid, most commonly as diffuse plaques, occurs in fewer than half the cases. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neuropathologically distinct slowly progressive tauopathy with a clear environmental etiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neurotrauma Rep
                Neurotrauma Rep
                neur
                Neurotrauma Reports
                Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers (140 Huguenot Street, 3rd FloorNew Rochelle, NY 10801USA )
                2689-288X
                November 2020
                2020
                10 November 2020
                : 1
                : 1
                : 169-180
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
                [ 2 ]Department of Sports Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.
                [ 3 ]Center for Translational Imaging, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
                [ 4 ]Division of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
                [ 5 ]Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois, USA.
                Author notes
                [*] [ * ]Address correspondence to: Virginia T. Gallagher, MS, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 710 N. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60611, USA Va.t.gallagher@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1089/neur.2020.0051
                10.1089/neur.2020.0051
                7703496
                33274345
                bcd89153-086b-44ff-a286-f8651d9dbe28
                © Virginia T. Gallagher et al., 2020; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

                This Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 76, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Article

                oculomotor,repetitive head impacts,saccade testing,soccer subconcussion

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